Monday, September 26, 2022

Antibiotics For Pigs With Pneumonia

Reproductive And Iatrogenic Disorders

Respiratory Health รข Treat Pneumonia in Cows With Ampicillin

Multiple cysts are often present on ovaries of females > 1 year old. The cysts contain clear, serous fluid and may reach 24 cm in diameter. Cysts may be unilateral or bilateral. Clinically, ovarian cysts are associated with reduced reproductive performance, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, mucometra, endometritis, and alopecia. Radiography and ultrasonography should be performed, especially if an abdominal mass is palpable. Diagnosis of the disease by plain radiography is difficult because of the similar opacity of ovarian cysts and abdominal neoplasms. Abdominal ultrasound allows differentiation by imaging the inner structure of the ovarian cyst. Treatment is laparotomy and surgical removal of the ovary and cyst. Differential diagnoses include splenic, uterine, and ovarian tumors.

Although the clinical signs are similar, there are two recognized forms of pregnancy toxemia: the fasting/metabolic form and the toxic form. Both occur in late pregnancy. Affected sows show depression, acidosis, ketosis, proteinuria, ketonuria, and a lowered urinary pH .

The circulatory or preeclampsia form of pregnancy toxemia is due to uteroplacental ischemia. The gravid uterus compresses the aorta, resulting in significant reduction of blood flow to the uterine vessels. Placental necrosis, hemorrhage, ketosis, and death follow. If suspected, emergency cesarean section and/or ovariohysterectomy are required to save the sows life.

Prevalence Of Positive Piglets With Regard To Herd Size

M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in 48 piglets from 11 farms with 550 sows and 79 piglets from 11 farms with > 550 sows. Farms with > 550 sows had a significantly higher detection rate .

Fig. 1

Comparison of the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae between groups. a Comparison of detection rates by herd size: positive piglet prevalence in farms with > 550 sows and others . b Comparison of detection rates by gilt replacement rate: prevalence of positive piglets in farms with > 40% replacement and others . c Comparison of detection rates by gilt status: prevalence of positive piglets in farms introducing serologically positive and negative gilts . d Comparison of detection rates by gilt source: prevalence of positive piglets in farms that produce their own replacement gilts and farms that acquire their gilts from GP . e Comparison of detection rates by acclimation method: prevalence of positive piglets in farms that naturally expose gilts to M. hyopneumoniae , farms that vaccinate gilts , and farms that do not use acclimation treatment . f Comparison of detection rates by antibiotic usage for sows: prevalence of positive piglets in farms that use antibiotics on sows and farms that do not use such treatment . g Comparison of detection rates by antibiotic use on piglets positive piglet prevalence in farms that use antibiotics on piglets and farms that do not use such treatment

Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis Of Glz

The chromatographic fingerprint analysis results of GLZ are shown in Figure . Guizhi and Li-Zhong Tang are the two main herbal ingredients of GLZ, whereas Guizhi, atractylodes, ginseng, ginger, and licorice are the other herbal ingredients of GLZ. As suggested in Figure , the bioactive marker substances for Guizhi are coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde , whereas those for Li-Zhong Tang are liquiritin, ginsenosides Rg1 + Re, ginsenoside Rb1, glycyrrhizin, 6-gingerol, atractylenolide III, and 6-shogaol .

FIGURE 1

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Mycoplasma Pneumonia In Swine

Mycoplasma Pneumonia in swine is a prevalent and costly disease that is a common and widely distributed throughout the year in all herds around the country.

Mycoplasma is defined as a chronic, clinically mild, infectious pneumonia of pigs characterized by its ability to produce a persistent dry cough, stunted growth, sporadic flare-ups of respiratory issues, and lung lesions.

The disease exposes the pigs respiratory tract to bacterial and viral infections and co-infections by other pathogens due to its ability to damage the cilia that filter air in the respiratory tract.

The disease occurs in all major swine-raising countries where the effects of the disease are uneven and unpredictable and place limits on the efficiency and flexibility of large production units.

Some Fruits And Vegetables With High Vitamin C Content

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  • Green peppers

  • Turnip greens

  • Kale

Vitamin C added to fortified guinea pig diets is not very stable and breaks down with exposure to moisture, heat, and light. Fortified diets may lose half of their vitamin C content within 3 months of manufacture. Guinea pigs may also develop vitamin C deficiency even if the dietary level of vitamin C is appropriate. This can happen if they have other illnesses or problems that prevent them from eating enough or that prevent their bodies from absorbing vitamin C properly. Treatment includes giving your pet vitamin C daily, either by mouth or by injection at your veterinarians office. Guinea pigs need at least 10 mg of vitamin C per kilogram of body weight daily . Multivitamins are not recommended because some of the other included vitamins could be dangerous for guinea pigs.

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What Are The Signs Of Guinea Pig Pneumonia Caused By Adenovirus

Signs of disease are just like those seen in different infective agents or microorganism infections and embody respiratory difficulties, discharge from the nose, and weight loss.

The extant guinea pig adenovirus has been suspected on the premise of histopathologic findings.

Research has discovered adenovirus-like inclusion bodies within the lungs of animals with clinical unwellness the infection prevalence is unknown.

Fur Mites May Cause Hair Loss Or Itching

Severe infestation by mites may cause hair loss or itching. Some types of mites cause no signs. Others cause hair loss but do not seem to affect the skin, and still others burrow into the skin and may cause intense itching, hair loss, and skin inflammation. This latter type of mite usually infects the inner thighs, shoulders, and neck. The skin underneath the affected fur may be dry or oily and thickened or crusty. In severely affected animals, the affected areas may become infected, which can cause the animals to lose weight, have low energy, or run around the cage. Left untreated, convulsions and death may result. Guinea pigs catch fur mites from other guinea pigs or from contaminated items such as bedding. Your veterinarian can diagnose this condition either by examining your pets fur or by looking at scrapings from your pets skin under a microscope. Mite infestations are treated with injections or topical medications. Infestations can be minimized or prevented by making sure that living quarters are clean and sanitary and by minimizing your pets stress levels.

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Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Of Swine

Causative Agents

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of mycoplasmal pneumonia in swine. Infection with M. hyopneumoniae alone induces a mild, chronic pneumonia characterized clinically by mild cough. However, infection with M. hyopneumoniae alone is rare. M. hyopneumoniaes role in swine respiratory disease is generally through its interaction with other viruses and bacteria. M. hyopneumoniaes interaction with the other disease causing organisms in the lungs of pigs results in either enzootic pneumonia or more recently, the porcine respiratory disease complex . The most common organisms isolated from pigs infected with M. hyopneumoniae and exhibiting clinical signs of PRDC include porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus , porcine circovirus type 2 , swine influenza virus , Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus species, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , and Haemophilus parasuis. Other pathogens isolated from the lungs of pigs can be involved as well and the interaction with mycoplasmal pneumonia can work both ways. While bacteria such as P. multocida appear to increase the severity of mycoplasmal pneumonia, the presence of M. hyopneumoniae increases the severity and duration of pneumonia caused by PRRSV infection.

Transmission

Prevalence of Infection

Clinical Signs of Infection

Economic Effect

Diagnosis

Control Measures

Vaccines

Table 1. Herd Factors that exacerbate effects of respiratory disease.

Elimination of Disease

Etiology And Epidemiology Of Mycoplasmal Pneumonia Of Pigs

Pneumonia in Guinea Pigs

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes mycoplasmal pneumonia in pigs. It is sometimes referred to as enzootic pneumonia, a characteristic disease syndrome caused primarily by M hyopneumoniae. A host-specific pleomorphic organism that lacks a cell wall and is fastidious and smaller than most bacteria. It can be cultured in specially prepared media, but isolation from field cases is difficult. It is rapidly inactivated in the environment and by disinfectants, but it may survive longer in cold weather and depending on the surface of the material. Mycoplasmal pneumonia is also frequently complicated by other mycoplasmas, bacteria, and viruses, which affect the severity of the disease. It is recognized as part of the porcine respiratory disease Overview of Respiratory Diseases of Pigs Respiratory diseases of pigs can be classified into two broad categories based on the extent and duration of overt disease: those that affect large numbers of pigs and may be serious but of… read more complex.

In most countries that use modern pig-farming methods, the lungs of 30%80% of pigs slaughtered show lung lesions of the type associated with M hyopneumoniae infection. Pigs of all ages are susceptible, but within a herd, pigs are colonized in the first few weeks of life either by their dam or by other young pigs after mixing. Transmission to suckling piglets can occur from sows of all parities but is most prevalent in first-parity litters.

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Antibiotic Toxicity In Guinea Pigs

Alopecia Alopecia in Animals Alopecia is the partial or complete lack of hairs in areas where they are normally present. It can be congenital or acquired. Congenital alopecias are noninflammatory and are the result of hair… read more develops to a degree in all guinea pigs in late pregnancy and during nursing. It results from reduced anabolism of maternal skin associated with fetal growth. Hair loss usually begins on the back and progresses bilaterally on the flanks and ventral abdomen. Nursing guinea pigs may worsen the condition by pulling hair from their mothers. The alopecia resolves slowly either after parturition or when the sow stops nursing.

Thinning hair is common in young animals at weaning. It is associated with a period of transition in which coarse guard hairs of the adult coat are developing and neonatal fur is being lost. Ear chewing and barbering are seen in group-housed guinea pigs that develop a social hierarchy. Often younger animals of lower rank develop hair loss from fur chewing by dominant older members. The hair loss is characterized by an irregular, almost stepwise pattern. Treatment involves separation of the aggressive animal.

Single-housed guinea pigs that become bored may inflict self-barbering. In these cases, areas the animal cannot reach such as the head, neck, and anterior shoulders are not affected. Changing the guinea pigs environment, adding enrichment, and providing large amounts of fresh hay often prevent boredom and stop this vice.

Treatment And Prevention Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Infections

Preventing Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae depends on good management. Optimal conditions for pig health and immunity should be prioritised: attention to air quality, ventilation, temperature and stocking density. Age segregation and a strict all-in, all-out policy are also very important.

Vaccination of piglets before the infection occurs is an efficient way to prevent damage from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections.

M + PAC – one or two shot vaccination programme

Antibiotics can be used in the treatment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections, but timing is difficult. Treating too late or too early is ineffective, so it often needs to be continued over an extended period. Medicated Early Weaning will produce litters free of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacteria.

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Eye And Ear Disorders

Signs of conjunctivitis include watering, crusting, and redness of the eyes. In guinea pigs, conjunctivitis is usually caused by infection by bacteria, such as Bordetella or Streptococcus species, that cause general upper respiratory disease . Treatment may include antibiotics. As always with guinea pigs, carefully watch your pets reactions to the medication.

Ear infections are rare in guinea pigs. When they do occur, they are usually the result of bacterial infection. They may occur at the same time as pneumonia or other respiratory disease. Signs of infection may include discharge from the ears, but sometimes there are no signs of infection. In severe cases, the animal may become deaf. If the infection spreads from the middle ear to the inner ear, your pet may show nervous system problems such as imbalance, head tilt, walking in circles, or rolling on the ground. Treatment depends on whether the infection is in the outer ear canal, middle ear, or inner ear.

Hardening Of The Organs

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Guinea pigs that suffer from metastatic calcification often die suddenly without any signs of illness. This condition usually occurs in male guinea pigs that are more than 1 year old. Signs, if they are seen at all, can include weight loss, muscle or joint stiffness, and increased urination . The cause of this condition is uncertain but is probably related to diets that contain too much calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D and not enough magnesium. Most high-quality commercial guinea pig feed is formulated to contain the correct amounts of these nutrients. Check the nutrition information on the package label before buying pellets for your guinea pig, and do not give additional vitamin or mineral supplements.

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Symptoms Of Pneumonia Infection In Guinea Pigs

As mentioned above, during the initial days of the virus, guinea pigs do not show any signs and are the healthy carrier of the disease. After some time, the symptoms are visible, and when they are, it feels like a sudden outburst of a disease. Note down the signs below:

  • Sneezing or coughing
  • Discharge from mouth or nose
  • Weight loss due to loss of appetite
  • Fever

Prevalence Of Positive Piglets With Regard To Usage Of Antibiotics

M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in 81 piglets from 11 farms using antibiotics in the sow herds and 46 piglets from 11 farms that did not . The pathogen was detected in 102 piglets from 13 farms using antibiotics in suckling pigs and 25 piglets from nine farms that did not. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly higher in farms that used antibiotics in sows or piglets .

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Acute Toxicity Of Glz

The maximum tolerated single dose of GLZ was determined in both sexes of rats to be 37.50 g/kg, which is equivalent to 63 times human clinical dose. The administration of GLZ at this dose demonstrated that it did not cause any signs of toxicity and mortality in the animals during 2 weeks of observation. There was no abnormal behavior observed among the animals in terms of salivation, diarrhea, hyperexcitability, respiratory distress, and mortality for the first 30 min and subsequent hours after that for 2 weeks compared to the normal control group. Therefore, it is concluded that GLZ at a lower dosage of 37.50 g/kg is safe to be administered to the animals.

What Causes Respiratory Problems In Guinea Pigs

Best Antibiotics For Pigs

Respiratory infection in the guinea pig is among the most significant diseases, the causing agents of which are bacteria-like streptococci pneumonia and Bordetella. If a guinea pig harbors any of these bacteria, it gets diagnosed with pneumonia and maybe an asymptomatic carrier of the infection. These bacteria then infect other guinea pigs in various ways and, finally, cause the disease as soon as it arises.

Young guinea pigs are highly prone to be affected by this infection. The factors that might boost the growth of infectious bacteria in the animal body include other diseases, stress, and pregnancy. The bacteria can spread by airborne particles, direct contact, and contaminated hands or objects. Even there are cases where the infected pig needs to be hospitalized for extra support and care.

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Parasitic Infections In Guinea Pigs

Mange, caused by the sarcoptid mite Trixacarus caviae, is common in guinea pigs. The clinical signs are dramatic: intense pruritus, widespread alopecia, and hyperkeratosis. T caviae is transmitted through direct animal-to-animal contact from sow to weanlings during feeding, and through contact with infested cage material such as bedding. The mites may be capable of existing subclinically, becoming active with stressors , immunosuppression, or other underlying diseases. In affected animals that exhibit hematologic changes such as heterophilia, monocytosis, eosinophilia, and basophilia, vigorous scratching may trigger convulsive seizures. The seizures are controlled by diazepam . The clinical presumptive diagnosis should be confirmed with several skin scrapings, usually revealing a massive T caviae infestation. Treatment involves ivermectin , or spot-on dermal treatment with either selamectin . The guinea pig should also have a whole body washing with fipronil repeated twice at intervals of 710 days. Fipronil should not be used when open skin wounds are present.

Other ectoparasitic diseases are infrequent in guinea pigs. Infestation with the fur mite Chirodiscoides caviae may result in pruritus and alopecia along the posterior trunk of the body, while underlying skin is relatively unaffected. Subclinical cases may be asymptomatic. Treatment is with selamectin administered twice at 2-week intervals.

Bacterial Infections In Guinea Pigs

Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus may be carried in the nasopharynx as a latent infection. Abrasions of the oral cavity allow bacteria to be transported to draining lymph nodes of the head and neck, causing suppurative lymphadenitis. Clinically, guinea pigs present with large, unilateral swellings in the neck. The affected animal is often in good flesh and shows no other signs of disease. The differential diagnosis should always include cavian leukemia. Treatment is surgical excision of the affected lymph nodes and systemic antibiotic treatment. Bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity should always be recommended. Streptococci are generally sensitive to chloramphenicol , and this antibiotic is safe to give systemically to guinea pigs. Alternative safe antibiotics are azithromycin and fluoroquinolones however, bacterial resistance to these antibiotics is now frequently seen.

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How To Treat Guinea Pig Pneumonia

The problem with treatment is that medicine doesnt treat the illness but the signs and symptoms of diseases.

Thus, any medication will try to eliminate the symptoms of pneumonia instead of pneumonia itself.

Administering fluids , forced feeding if needed, and oxygen therapy to alleviate breathing problems are common treatment approaches.

Vitamin C is also very important.

Additionally, a vet can prescribe antibiotics to your guinea pig, although some of them are toxic to guinea pigs.

However, some are safer than others and the vet will do whatever possible to save your guinea pigs life.

Monitor your ill guinea pig and watch for diarrhea.

If your guinea pig with pneumonia taking antibiotics has diarrhea, contact the vet immediately.

Also, if you own more than one guinea pig, you can prevent and control outbreaks of pneumonia if you keep your guinea pigs separate and maintain hygiene in guinea pig cages at all times.

You will also have to separate the sick guinea pigs from the company of others.

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