Saturday, October 1, 2022

At What Age Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Recommended

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

Pneumonia Vaccination

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus. People can be infected with the bacteria, or they can carry it in their throat, and not be ill. Those carriers can still spread it, primarily in droplets from their nose or mouth when they breathe, cough, or sneeze.

Depending on what organ or part of the body is infected, pneumococcal disease will cause any of several serious illnesses, including:

  • Bacterial meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord that can lead to confusion, coma, and death as well as other physical effects, such as blindness or paralysis
  • Pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that creates cough, fever, and difficulty breathing
  • Otitis media, a middle ear infection that can cause pain, swelling, sleeplessness, fever, and irritability
  • Bacteremia, a dangerous infection of the blood stream
  • Sinus infections

There are more than 6,000 deaths each year in the U.S. as a result of pneumococcal disease. More than half of those deaths are in adults who, according to CDC recommendations, should have been vaccinated.

In children under age 5, infection with the pneumococcus bacteria results in approximately 480 cases of meningitis and 4,000 cases of bacteremia or other invasive infection per year. A major problem in very young children is that the classic symptoms of meningitis and pneumonia are often not present, making the disease hard to recognize.

People With Health Problems And The Pneumococcal Vaccine

The PPV vaccine is available on the NHS for children and adults aged from 2 to 64 years old who are at a higher risk of developing a pneumococcal infection than the general population.

This is generally the same people who are eligible for annual flu vaccination.

You’re considered to be at a higher risk of a pneumococcal infection if you have:

Adults and children who are severely immunocompromised usually have a single dose of PCV followed by PPV.

How Do I We Get The Vaccine

In Canada, all provinces and territories provide the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, starting at 2 months of age. While the exact schedule will depend on where you live, usually two shots are given between 2 and 11 months of age and a booster at 12-15 months. Children at high risk of disease are given three shots , as well as the booster.

Unvaccinated children between 15 months and 5 years old should also get the vaccine. Your doctor or public health unit can tell you the number of shots your child will need and when.

All unvaccinated children and adolescents who are at high risk of serious infection should receive both the conjugate and the polysaccharide vaccine. The polysaccharide vaccine is at given at age 2 or later, with a booster 5 years after the first.

Recommended Reading: Are Pneumonia Vaccines Covered By Medicare

Path To Improved Health

Pneumococcal vaccines can protect you against getting pneumonia, which is contagious and spreads from close, person-to-person contact. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and can lead to many symptoms, including:

  • cough
  • chest pains
  • bringing up mucus when you cough

For seniors, pneumonia can be very serious and life-threatening. This is especially true if you have a chronic condition, such as diabetes or COPD. Pneumonia can also develop after youve had a case of the flu or a respiratory virus such as COVID-19. It is extremely important to stay current on flu shots each year in addition to your pneumococcal vaccines.

While PPSV23 and PCV13 do not protect against all types of pneumonia, they can make it less likely that you will experience severe and possibly life-threatening complications from the illness.

The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that seniors who have not had either pneumococcal vaccine should get a dose of PCV13 first, and then a dose of PPSV23 6-12 months later. The vaccines cannot be given at the same time. If you have recently had a dose of PPSV23, your doctor will wait at least one year to give you PCV13.

Managing Fever After Immunisation

Intervals Between PCV13 and PPSV23 Vaccines ...

Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.

There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:

  • giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
  • although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if fever is present, paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist, .

Recommended Reading: What Are The Risk Factors Of Pneumonia

Even Healthy People Need Vaccines

Many people still think of immunizations are for children they just don’t think of getting these, or they think, “Why should I do that if I’m healthy?”

There are other barriers to getting vaccines among adults, which were outlined in an article published by The American Journal of Medicine.

This article reported that self-reported immunization rates for tetanus, influenza and pneumococcal vaccines were lower than the national guideline goal rates. Common consumer-reported barriers included:

  • Lack of physician recommendations
  • Incorrect assumptions

Surveyed health care providers suggested additional barriers facing patients include:

  • Fear of needles
  • Perceived side effects
  • Lack of insurance coverage

To increase immunization rates, it’s important to overcome these barriers, such as the widespread myth that vaccines are unsafe and commonly cause serious side effects.

Vaccines have minimal risks and are generally very safe

The risks for vaccines among people age 65 and older are the same as any population, aside from the possibility of less effectiveness with age.

Serious complications are very rare for most patients, the benefits significantly outweigh the risks involved.

The influenza vaccine is made with completely dead forms of the influenza virus, and there is no scientific way you can get the flu from the vaccine. This vaccine is generally safe for all patients over six months of age.

Are You 65 Or Older Get Two Vaccinations Against Pneumonia

  • By Gregory Curfman, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Former Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Health Publishing

ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

If you or a loved one is age 65 or older, getting vaccinated against pneumonia is a good idea so good that the Centers for Disease Control now recommends that everyone in this age group get vaccinated against pneumonia twice.

This new recommendation is based on findings from a large clinical trial called CAPiTA, which were published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes just called pneumococcus, is a common bacterium that can cause serious lung infections like pneumonia. It can also cause invasive infections of the bloodstream, the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord , and other organs and tissues. Older individuals are especially prone to being infected by Pneumococcus, and these infections are often deadly.

The dark spots are pneumonia-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria isolated from the blood of an infected person.

One caveat is that while PCV13 is effective in preventing pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, it does not prevent pneumonia caused by viruses or other bacteria.

Also Check: Pneumonia Vaccine 65 And Older

Common And Local Adverse Events

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Studies of Pneu-C-13 vaccine indicated that irritability decreased appetite increased or decreased sleep and pain, swelling and redness at the injection site after the toddler dose and in older children, are common side effects. Low grade fever occurred in 20% to 30% or more of vaccine recipients. In adults over 50 years of age, the most commonly reported side effects included pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and new onset of myalgia, with fever above 38°C occurring in approximately 3% of vaccine recipients.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Reactions to Pneu-P-23 vaccine are usually mild. Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site occur in 30% to 60% of vaccine recipients and more commonly follow SC administration than IM administration. Occasionally, low grade fever may occur. Re-immunization of healthy adults less than 2 years after the initial dose is associated with increased injection site and systemic reactions. Studies have suggested that re-vaccination after an interval of at least 4 years is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects. However, severe injection site reactions, including reports of injection site cellulitis and peripheral edema in the injected extremity, have been documented rarely with Pneu-P-23 vaccine in post-marketing surveillance, even with the first dose. Multiple re-vaccinations are not recommended refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

Talk To Your Doctor About Your Immunizations

Pneumonia Can Be PreventedVaccines Can Help Older Adults

It’s important to sit down with your doctor and open the conversation about vaccinations to customize an immunization schedule that is best for you.

While the pneumonia vaccine is generally recommended for people over age 65, some younger people might need this vaccine because of a medical condition or situation or, if you have potential exposure to hepatitis A or B like health care workers, this vaccine might be recommended.

Talk to your doctor who can assess your risk for diseases and help you to determine what is best for your preventive health.

Don’t Miss: Is Wheezing A Symptom Of Pneumonia

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines

Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.

Can The Shots Cause Pneumonia Or Make You Sick

No. The pneumonia vaccines dont contain live bacteria, so they cant cause an infection. They wont cause pneumonia or other pneumococcal diseases. If you dont feel well after your vaccine, you should discuss your symptoms with your healthcare provider to find out whether they are related to the vaccine or caused by another illness.

Read Also: How To Help With Pneumonia Cough

Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.

The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.

The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.

Is Cost A Factor In Deciding Whether Or Not To Give A Vaccination

Figure 4

Yes, the CDC wrote extensively about the decreasing cost-benefit of PCV-13. Essentially, vaccination of all older adults with PCV13 is no longer cost effective as rates of those serotypes continue to decrease. Universal PCV13 was not considered a judicious use of healthcare resources. Its hard to put money amounts on the benefit of a vaccine its more of a way to compare cost and efficacy with other interventions such as PPSV23.

You May Like: When Can You Get Pneumonia Vaccine

Select Safety Information For Pneumovax 23

Do not administer PNEUMOVAX®23 to individuals with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of the vaccine.

Defer vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 in persons with moderate or severe acute illness.

Use caution and appropriate care in administering PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with severely compromised cardiovascular and/or pulmonary function in whom a systemic reaction would pose a significant risk.

Available human data from clinical trials of PNEUMOVAX 23 in pregnancy have not established the presence or absence of a vaccine-associated risk.

Since elderly individuals may not tolerate medical interventions as well as younger individuals, a higher frequency and/or a greater severity of reactions in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Persons who are immunocompromised, including persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished immune response to PNEUMOVAX 23.

PNEUMOVAX 23 may not be effective in preventing pneumococcal meningitis in patients who have chronic cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting from congenital lesions, skull fractures, or neurosurgical procedures.

For subjects aged 65 years or older in a clinical study, systemic adverse reactions which were determined by the investigator to be vaccine-related were higher following revaccination than following initial vaccination.

Vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 may not offer 100% protection from pneumococcal infection.

Why Vaccination Is Important For Adults

Vaccination isn’t just for children. Vaccines are safe and protect you and those around you from vaccine-preventable diseases.

As we get older, the protection we had from previous vaccination can decrease for some diseases. Getting another dose can increase our immunity to provide the best protection. Some adults may have missed one or more of their vaccines. They may need to catch up and get these vaccines now.

There are also diseases that are more common in adults, even healthy adults. This is why additional vaccines are needed as we get older.

  • babies
  • people with certain medical conditions, such as those who have weakened immunity

This is known as community immunity or herd immunity.

Check if your vaccines are up to date. Talk to your health care provider to see what you need to be fully protected.

Learn more about:

Don’t Miss: When Should I Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

The 5 Vaccines Every Person Over Age 65 Should Consider

Vaccines are not just a childhood past time. They play an important role in protecting you in every phase of life. And they become particularly important during the elder years when risks to certain diseases climb higher.

For older patients in assisted living or those in larger, more populated care settings, vaccinations are even more important, as exposure risk to communicable diseases like COVID-19, the flu and pneumonia are higher.

Certain vaccines are proven to be safe and very effective in preventing several diseases that can have very serious implications for aging populations.

AdventHealth explains how five important vaccines can help keep people age 65 and older as healthy and vibrant as possible.

How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last

There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults

Streptococcus pneumoniaevaccinepneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae

  • Younger than 2 years old: four shots
  • 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
  • Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker

You May Like: Best Home Remedy For Pneumonia

Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.

These include:

  • babies
  • adults aged 65 or over
  • children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition

Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.

People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.

If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.

Adults At High Risk Of Ipd

Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.

Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.

Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.

Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.

You May Like: Signs Of Pneumonia Vs Bronchitis

Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

Popular Articles
Related news