Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Best Pneumonia Vaccine For Cattle

How Do Vaccines Work

Cattle vaccinated along Kenya-Uganda border to contain contagious Bovine Pneumonia

Vaccines stimulate the body to produce its own defence against infection. Mimicking what happens when an animal has been exposed to disease, the body and its defensive system will remember the identity of the invading organisms. So, when the animal comes into contact with a disease, its body is ready to fight it and the animal will not fall ill and suffer. This protects the individual animal and because this animal will not develop the disease and will not become infective, it will also help protect the population from the disease herd immunity.

A vaccine may consist of live but attenuated viruses or bacteria, or killed viruses or bacteria, or parts of them.

Killed or inactivated vaccines are prepared from killed organisms or fractions of the organism incapable of causing disease. They generally provide a relatively short period of immunity.

In attenuated vaccines, the immunising agent is an organism such as a virus, bacterium or parasite, which has been developed to stimulate the production of the appropriate antibodies without causing the disease. Live vaccines are particularly effective in providing long-term protection, because they are a more powerful stimulus to the immune system. They are also more versatile in their route of administration.

Biotechnology can provide vaccines for diseases which cannot be controlled by conventional vaccine technology and create more specific, better defined products with even greater safety and efficacy.

Bovine Respiratory Disease In Cattle On

Bovine Respiratory Disease is the most common cause of illness and death in cattle triggered by a complex interaction of stress factors, viral and bacterial infections. A range of factors can predispose cattle and calves to BRD.

Stress can be caused by weaning, transport, sale yards, social restructuring, age, immunological background, dehydration and change of diet.

Viral infections include Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Pestivirus , whilst the bacteria Mannhaemia haemolytica is one of the most common and aggressive bugs involved in BRD.

In the early stages, BRD typically presents as inappetance with cattle appearing hunched and lethargic. As the disease progresses coughing and nasal discharge may be seen and cattle may appear depressed and withdrawn from the main herd. In many animals the disease may go unnoticed, silently impacting weight gain and meat quality.

Like people, cattle get colds. When one person gets a cold it doesnt take long for it to spread to others. Many of us work through having a cold and cattle are much the same however they have evolved to hide their symptoms to avoid being singled out by predators.

Research shows that BRD infections in young cattle are responsible for production losses impacting weight gain and meat quality1.

Proper Handling Of Vaccines

The best vaccine program will fail if the product is damaged by improper handling. For example, if the label says to store a vaccine at 35 to 45 degrees F, the vaccine should be refrigerated. Vaccines should not be allowed to freeze, nor should they be stored in direct sunlight.

Most MLVs must be reconstituted by adding sterile water to a dehydrated cake in a separate sterile vial. Once the water is added, the vaccine organisms are fragile and will be live for only a short time. As a rule of thumb, only reconstitute enough vaccine to be used in 30 to 45 minutes, and use a cooler or other climate-controlled storage container to protect reconstituted vaccines from extremes of cold, heat, and sunlight.

Keep needles and syringes clean to avoid infections at the site of injection. DO NOT use disinfectants to clean needles and syringes used to administer vaccines, especially MLVs. Even a trace or film of disinfectant in a syringe or needle can kill the live organisms and make the vaccine worthless. Follow product guidelines for cleaning multi-use vaccine syringe guns, but in general, after use, rinse thoroughly with hot water to clean the injection equipment, and then sterilize it using boiling water.

Figure 1. Use neck for injections. Do not inject in rump or leg.

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Profile Of One Shot Compared To Two Shot Program

Protection from Bovi-Shield MH-One is achieved within 7 days and maintained at this level for at least 17 weeks. This means you can see the benefits of vaccinating against this disease-causing bacteria on your own farm.

This compares to a traditional two shot vaccine which takes up to 6 weeks to reach the required protective levels.

Schematic representation only. Actual antibody levels will vary in individual animals.

In addition, vaccinating with Bovi-Shield MH-One on farm ensures that your cattle are ready to receive the most effective disease control program at feedlot induction.

Highly effective live vaccines using intra-nasal delivery have been proven to work best at induction to protect your cattle against Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis .

When compared to killed injectable IBR vaccines, a live vaccine using intra-nasal delivery stimulates a highly effective local immune response in the upper respiratory tract9. Importantly this response optimises the performance of cattle on feed.10,11 Live intranasal vaccines are available through veterinarians.

Case Study : Trout Vaccination

One Shot

Enteric Red Mouth caused by Yersinia ruckeri first entered British trout farming in 1982/3. From the first point of entry it spread rapidly around the country and became an endemic problem causing up to 20 percent mortality even with regular treatments. Immersion vaccination was introduced in 1983 and the severity of the disease was contained but problems persisted particularly as the intensity of production increased. In recent years an oral booster vaccine has been introduced which has enabled trout farmers to produce their fish without significant antibiotic intervention.

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Strategize Your Cattle Vaccination Schedule

  • Ultimately, the best vaccine at birth is high-quality colostrum from the calfs dam
  • Intranasal cattle respiratory vaccine
  • Bacterial pneumonia vaccine for Pasteurella and Mannhaemia Haemolytica +/- BVD
  • 7-way clostridial vaccine
  • 5-way viral cattle respiratory vaccine
  • Bacterial pneumonia vaccine for Pasteurella and Mannhaemia Haemolytica

New Pneumonia Vaccine Available For Calves

Animal health company Boehringer Ingelheim has launched an intranasal vaccine for calves.

Bovalto Respi Intranasal protects against the two main respiratory viruses RSV and PI3.

The vaccine triggers mucosal immunity in the nasal passages and throat area.

See also: Better ventilation reduces pneumonia in calf-rearing system

Bovalto Respi Intranasal should be delivered as a single shot, from 10 days of age and provides immunity for 12 weeks, from 10 days after vaccination.

To assist with effective administration, there is a Bovalto Respisafe applicator and nozzle, which fits against the calfs nostril, and a vaccinator.

Correct administration will ensure that the spray is delivered in the most efficient manner to do its job, says the manufacturer.

If the droplet size is too big, then it can run out of the nose, and if too small then this is carried into the back of the throat and is wasted.

It can be obtained through vets. Price is available on request.

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For More On This Topic See The Following Publications:

B-222: Cattle Vaccination and Immunity

Original authors: John Wenzel, Extension Veterinarian Clay P. Mathis, Extension Livestock Specialist and Boone Carter, Extension Associate.

John C. Wenzel is the Extension veterinarian in the Extension Animal Sciences and Natural Resources department at NMSU. He earned his B.S. from NMSU and his DVM from Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine. His work focuses on cow/calf medicine and preventative health programs for livestock producers in southwestern New Mexico.

NOTE: Consult your veterinarian for specific health program recommendations and for guidance on choosing pharmaceutical products, especially when using modified-live products. Always follow label directions and Beef Quality Assurance guidelines when processing calves.

To find more resources for your business, home, or family, visit the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences on the World Wide Web at aces.nmsu.edu

Contents of publications may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. For permission to use publications for other purposes, contact or the authors listed on the publication.

New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. NMSU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating.

Revised May 2015

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Child Fund Kenya embarks on ring vaccination of livestock in Samburu against viral pneumonia

However, there are two types of immunity. One is cell mediated there are some immune cells that are very non-specific and they clean up whatever foreign material they see. This is the first part of the immune system that develops and is very important for most of the diseases the calf faces. We believe there is probably an increase in this type of immunity with early vaccination, even though we might not see a big increase in titres or antibody response. Thats more secondary. We feel that even if these calves do get exposed to the disease, they at least have good cell-mediated immunity from the vaccine. We feel this is very important for some of the viral infections anyway. This is why I feel OK about switching a couple of these herds to vaccinating at a younger age. If the calves are being branded at a later age, however, I still recommend vaccinating at branding time, he says.

It is important to work with your veterinarian, and come up with a plan based on what has worked in the past for your herd, and what diseases you have in the herd. We see some baby calf pneumonia that probably isnt Pasteurella. Its probably BRSV or some other virus, rather than bacterial. If youve worked with your veterinarian and made a diagnosis, you can be more specific about which vaccine you choose, he explains.

Keeping calves healthy is not always easy because there can be so many factors involved.

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What Diseases Can Vaccination Prevent

Vaccination protects hundreds of millions of animals worldwide from disease and possibly death.

Animals, just like humans, suffer from a range of infectious diseases. As veterinary medicine has advanced, prevention of disease has become a priority as healthy food comes from healthy animals. One of the best means of preventing disease is by creating immunity in the animal. This is usually achieved by vaccination.

The principle of vaccination has been established for over 200 years. Since those early days, enormous strides have been made in the development of vaccines, which have helped to prevent and in some cases eliminate many diseases in humans, farm animals and the family pet.

Animals which develop disease often require treatment with medicines so vaccination helps reduce the amount of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of animals. Vaccination presents no hazard to consumers of produce from vaccinated animals.

Not all animals need every vaccine. Some, like clostridial disease prevention, are basically routine, just like childhood vaccination programmes. The vaccination programme chosen for farm animals depends on the management system, the location of the farm and the history of the herd or flock . Most farm animals are young, and these animals are often more susceptible to infection. So, for example, calves often need to be protected by vaccination against respiratory disease. Some of the diseases that can be prevented are shown below.

Table 1 Modified Live Vaccines

AdvantagesDisadvantages
One initial dose may be sufficient, but boosters are sometimes required.Risk of causing abortion or transient infertility therefore, MLV should generally be administered 6 to 8 weeks prior to the breeding season .
Typically stimulate more rapid, stronger, and longer-lasting immunity than killed vaccines.Must be mixed on-farm and used within about 30 minutes.
Less likely than killed vaccines to cause allergic reactions and post-vaccination lumps.
Usually less expensive than killed vaccines.

Killed vaccines and toxoids contain organisms or subunits of organisms that do not replicate or reproduce themselves in the animal following administration. KVs usually contain adjuvants, or added substances, that further stimulate the immune system to respond to the vaccine challenge. KVs are safe to use in any animal, including pregnant cows .

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Why Do Things Go Wrong Sometimes

Inevitably on occasion disease occurs despite use of a vaccine programme. Its worth exploring the reasons why this could happen

– The wrong number of doses were given: the most common problem being failure to complete a 2 dose primary vaccine course. The appeal of single dose vaccines is obvious to see.

– Incorrect inter-dose interval during a 2 dose primary vaccination course: the time interval which should be applied between the first and second doses will be stated on the product information sheet. Its commonly between 2 and 4 weeks. If the interval is too short or too long the response to the second dose may be less than expected, potentially resulting in a reduced level of protection, or reduced duration of protection.

– Wrong age of animal: some vaccines are either not licensed for use in young animals, or are licensed but have no information on how effective the vaccine will be if the calf has colostral antibodies. Ensuring calves receive sufficient good quality colostrum is a vital part of good calf management, but those same antibodies can interfere with some vaccines.

– Wrong time: Vaccine administered too close to the risk period. This is common problem when vaccinating young stock prior to winter housing. No vaccine works immediately, they all have a period of time before they provide effective protection.

– Losing track of which animals are done or which need a second injection or forgetting the booster vaccination.

Case Study : Leptospirosis

Order one

Leptospirosis occurs in 60% of UK dairy herds, is an important bacterial disease of cattle and can lead to significant economic losses through symptoms as varied as abortion, reproductive failure and loss of milk production. Leptospirosis can also be transmitted from cows to humans where it can cause a flu-like syndrome. Vaccination against leptospirosis will protect cattle from developing the disease and thus economic benefits for the farmer. Vaccination also has human health benefits as it will prevent transmission to farm workers.

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Cattles Vaccination History Important

Producers are advised to talk with a veterinarian once a year about vaccination programs to get the best results

RED DEER There are different kinds of vaccines on the market and it is important that producers know what their cattle have received in the past.

It is really important to know the history of animals and what they have had in their lives when you are vaccinating mature animals, said veterinarian Craig Dorin of Veterinary Agri-Health Services in Airdrie, Alta., who presented practical vaccination information for cow-calf producers at the recent Alberta Beef Industry Conference held in Red Deer.

He recommended that producers talk with a veterinarian once a year about vaccination programs to get the best results.

It is important to understand the pros and cons of killed and modified live vaccines, he said.

Killed or inactivated vaccines contain all or part of a dead pathogen. They do not replicate. One dose of a killed vaccine does not generate strong immunity so two doses are needed to get an immune memory response and build antibody levels high enough for protection.

Modified or attenuated live vaccine has a live pathogen that multiplies in the body but has been modified or weakened so it no longer causes disease.

Modified live vaccines need to be used with caution around pregnant animals because they will replicate and could sicken animals or cause abortions.

Vaccination of calves depends on the situation, pathogen, animal and environment.

Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

1. What

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

2. Who

Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

3. How

4. Why

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Bovine Respiratory Disease In Paddock Cattle

Abattoir data indicates that the occurrence of BRD on-farm is common but often goes undetected. The consequence is depression and loss of appetite causing a reduction in carcass weight and reduced meat quality of young cattle1.

Observations of lungs in abattoirs indicate that sub-clinical BRD is common 1.

Other studies show cattle with lung lesions that were not treated for BRD had lower average daily gains compared to cattle with normal lungs2,3,4,5,6,7. Results show that BRD lowers ADG by an average of 100 grams a day, lowering end carcass weight and reducing meat quality.

Australian surveillance data shows that Mannheimia haemolytica is one of the most common bacterial components of the BRD complex and published data provides evidence of the impact MH can have on young pastured cattle 8.

Typical areas of lung damage

Infectious Causes Of Abortion In Small Ruminants

The damage pneumonia can do to cattle lungs

If abortions or reproductive failure are present on farm, consultation with your veterinarian is imperative in determining if an infectious agent is involved. Strict hygiene should be practiced and protective clothing and gloves should be worn whenever handling does that have aborted, including aborted fetuses and placentas.

There are several infectious causes of abortion in small ruminants, of which several have zoonotic importance . These include Campylobacter spp. , Leptospira spp., Listeria spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetti , and Chlamydophila abortus . Further description of clinical signs in does and fetal and placental lesions in aborted fetuses due to these various infectious agents can be found elsewhere. There are currently no vaccines against Listeria spp., Toxoplasmosis, or Coxiella burnetti available in the United States.

Brucella melitensis also causes abortion in goats, but it is sporadic and occurs extremely rarely in the United States. It is the causative agent of Malta fever in humans. Vaccination is not permitted in the United States and affected animals should be eliminated.

Consultation with a veterinarian, examination of affected and unaffected animals, submission of fetal and placental tissues for necropsy examination, and identification of infectious agents in abortion outbreaks is absolutely essential for a proper diagnosis. This should be done before implementing vaccination strategies, as management of such infectious diseases is complex.

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