What Are The Stages Of Congestive Heart Failure
The New York Heart Association has developed a scale that commonly is used to determine the functional capabilities of heart failure.
New York Heart Association Functional Classification of Heart Failure
Heart Problems After Covid
For people who have had COVID-19, lingering COVID-19 heart problems can complicate their recovery.
Some of the symptoms common in coronavirus long-haulers, such as palpitations, dizziness, chest pain and shortness of breath, may be due to heart problems or, just from having been ill with COVID-19. How do you tell if your symptoms are heart-related, and what can you expect if they are?
Cardiologist Wendy Post, M.D., clarifies which post-coronavirus symptoms may point to a heart issue, when to call your doctor, and other facts all long-term COVID-19 survivors should know.
Bacterial Pneumonia Patients At Increased Risk Of Major Heart Problems
- Infectious Diseases Society of America
- A new study suggests patients hospitalized with pneumonia may be at serious risk of new or worsening heart problems. Researchers studied the records of all 170 patients hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia at a Texas Veterans Affairs medical center from 2001 to 2005. They found that 19.4 percent of them had a heart attack or other major heart problem concurrently at the time of admission, and that the presence of the heart condition significantly increased mortality from pneumonia.
A new study suggests patients hospitalized with pneumonia may be at serious risk of new or worsening heart problems.
Researchers led by Daniel Musher, MD, studied the records of all 170 patients hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia at a Texas Veterans Affairs medical center from 2001 to 2005. They found that 19.4 percent of them had a heart attack or other major heart problem concurrently at the time of admission, and that the presence of the heart condition significantly increased mortality from pneumonia.
In this study, the authors note, when adult patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, “the concurrence of pneumonia and a new cardiac event was often unrecognized, especially in the first 12-24 hours of hospitalization, which led some patients to go without antibiotics for pneumonia and others to have no cardiac monitoring or anticoagulant therapy.”
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Flu And Pneumonia Infections Increase Risk Of Having A Heart Attack And Stroke
People who have had flu or pneumonia may be six times more likely to suffer from a heart attack or stroke in the days after infection, according to new research published in the European Respiratory Journal.
The research, funded by the Academy of Medical Sciences, is the largest study to look at the risk of heart attacks and strokes due to specific respiratory infections. It found that several different organisms that cause respiratory infections also increase heart attack and stroke risk, including S. pneumoniae bacteria and influenza.
The researchers say that the findings suggest that getting vaccinated against these two infections could also have a role in preventing heart attack and stroke, along with preventing infection in the first place.
In general, respiratory infections are thought to increase the risk of heart attack and stroke by causing inflammation, which can lead to the development of blood clots. The influenza virus and S.pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia causing bacteria, can also have harmful effects on the heart muscle.
The new research found that having flu or pneumonia increases the risk of having a heart attack for up to a week after infection, and the risk of having a stroke is increased for one month.
The research team then investigated the rate of heart attacks and strokes in the periods of time immediately after a respiratory infection, and then compared this to the rate of cardiovascular events in other periods of time in the same people.
Cardiovascular Complication After Cap
Involvement of the cardiovascular system after developing CAP is as an important short- and long-term co-morbidity., Corrales-Medina et al. performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, and found that CC occurred in 18% of CAP patients. Most of the studies showed that the rate of CC is higher among hospitalized patients than outpatients.
Several risk factors are associated with the development of CC in patients with pneumonia. The strongest associated risk factor is preexistent CVD preceding the pneumonia event. Patients with CAP older than 65âyears tend to have higher rates of co-morbidities. The most common co-morbidities include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , ischaemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes and stroke. However, all these conditions seem to be overrepresented among hosts with compromised immunological status, potentially leading to poor clinical outcomes. In addition, many of these co-morbidities are associated with poor functional and disability status, usually requiring admission to long-term care facilities.,
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What Is The Connection Between Congestive Heart Failure And Pneumonia
Congestive heart failure and pneumonia are related in a variety of ways. For example, they share many of the same symptoms and can often be confused because they both look similar on an X-ray. In addition, each condition can cause complications during the treatment of the other. For instance, pneumonia is generally treatable, but those with heart conditions are much more likely to suffer from severe complications. Additionally, those with underlying heart problems can sometimes suffer from a heart attack during pneumonia.
Pneumonia is a condition of the lungs which is characterized by heavy mucus production, coughing, chest pain and heaviness, and trouble breathing. It can be caused by irritation to the lungs, bacterial or viral infections, or sometimes fungi and parasitic infections. Congestive heart failure is a condition in which one or both sides of the heart muscle are not able to effectively pump blood throughout the body. Sometimes this can be caused by a severe and chronic lung condition like emphysema, which has many of the same symptoms of pneumonia.
Link Between Chlamydia Infections And Heart Disease Reported In Science
- American Association For The Advancement Of Science
- A new study shows how Chlamydia infections may be linked to heart disease. The evidence, presented in the 26 February issue of Science, suggests that Chlamydia employ a sneaky tactic known as “molecular mimicry” that triggers an autoimmune response in the host and ultimately leads to inflammation of the heart.
Washington D.C. – A new study shows how Chlamydia infections may be linked to heart disease. The evidence, presented in the 26 February issue of Science, suggests that Chlamydia employ a sneaky tactic known as “molecular mimicry” that triggers an autoimmune response in the host and ultimately leads to inflammation of the heart.
In the past, several epidemiological studies, which track the occurrence of disease in large populations, have shown an intriguing correlation between Chlamydia infections and heart disease. Until now, however, the mechanism that might link the two has remained a mystery. It is clear that both disorders are significant public health problems. Chlamydia is a primary cause of sexually transmitted diseases and female infertility, and can also cause eye infections and pneumonia in children. Meanwhile, heart disease is the major cause of death in Western societies.
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Pneumonia In Young Children And Subsequent Adult Lung Disease
Throughout the last three decades evidence has emerged suggesting that adult-onset chronic pulmonary disorders are likely to have their origins in early life. Here we review the evidence of the published data.
There are two published systematic reviews on the long-term impact of childhood pneumonia , with one review also including studies relating to bronchiectasis. As the authors used different search terms, there were both similarities and differences between the two reviews. Nevertheless, the Thomson et al review involved two additional prospective studies on radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
Here, we summarise studies identified from these reviews and our own search with a focus on prospective and case-control studies. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database using the terms children and pneumonia and long term, respectively in their titles or abstracts without language restrictions. Studies published prior to 13 April 2015 were included.
Left Ventricular Dysfunction And Reversible Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary To Severe Pneumonia In A Background Of Sepsis: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature
Elaine N. Gitonga1, Junwu Wang1, Shengwei Yu1, Na Wu2, Haitao Shen1
1Department of Emergency Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University , Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University , , China
Keywords: Pulmonary hypertension severe pneumonia sepsis sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy left ventricular dysfunction
Submitted Apr 21, 2020. Accepted for publication Sep 08, 2020.
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Bacteremia And Septic Shock
If bacteria caused your pneumonia, they could get into your blood, especially if you didn’t see a doctor for treatment. It’s a problem called bacteremia.
When your blood pressure is too low, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your organs, and they can stop working. Get medical help right away if you notice symptoms like:
Your doctor will likely treat your lung abscesses with antibiotics. They may do a procedure that uses a needle to remove the pus.
Data On Potential Confounding Factors
We obtained data on comorbidity and other covariates from the hospital and prescription databases. For each study subject, we collected data on different major disease categories as included in the Charlson comorbidity index , based on the complete hospital discharge history before the pneumonia hospitalization and, for diabetes, also based on data on prescriptions for insulin/antidiabetic drugs. We defined three comorbidity levels as low , medium , and high . We also collected hospital discharge data on previous alcoholism-related disorders not included in the Charlson index. From the prescription databases, we furthermore retrieved data on prescriptions for immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids prescribed within one year, and systemic antibiotics prescribed within 6 months prior to the hospitalization with pneumonia.
The prevalence of diabetes is very high among heart failure patients , while hyperglycemia and diabetes have been associated with increased mortality from pneumonia. We therefore conducted a separate interaction analysis by examining pneumonia mortality among patients with heart failure but not diabetes, patients with diabetes but not heart failure, and patients with joint exposure of heart failure and diabetes.
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Data On Hospitalizations For Pneumonia
We identified patients aged at least 15 years of age, with a first-time hospitalization for pneumonia during the three data collection periods, using counties hospital discharge registries merged into a research database, as previously described . The registries contain key information on all patient discharges from non-psychiatric hospitals in the counties since 1977 . Data include patients civil registration numbers, admission and discharge dates, and up to 20 discharge diagnoses coded exclusively by physicians according to the International Classification of Diseases . The ICD-10 codes used for pneumonia hospitalizations were J12-J18, A481, and A709.
Pneumonia Can Increase Danger To The Heart
Pneumonia is a common lung infection with more than one million people admitted to the hospital for treatment each year, according to the Department of Health and Human Services. And, research published in JAMA found that the risk of cardiovascular disease increases for up to a year following a pneumonia infection.
An acute infection like pneumonia increases the stress on the heart and can lead to a cardiac event like heart failure, heart attack or arrhythmias, said Weston Harkness, DO, a cardiology fellow at Samaritan Cardiology – Corvallis.
For a healthy person, a case of pneumonia is very unlikely to lead to a cardiac event. The danger, according to Dr. Harkness, is for people with other cardiac risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and tobacco use.
The inflammatory response in the body during an infection can increase the risk of a cardiovascular event, but there is some evidence that pneumonia specifically can contribute to plaque breaking off the artery walls and causing a clot which can lead to a heart attack, said Dr. Harkness.
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Outcomes Of Pneumonia In Patients With Heart Failure
- Shen L, Jhund PS, Anand IS, et al.
- Supriya Shore, MD
- In post hoc analyses of two large, randomized cohorts with HFrEF and HFpEF patients, incidence of pneumonia was 29 and 39 per 1,000 patient-years, respectively.
- Patients with pneumonia in both cohorts were older with more comorbid conditions.
- Pneumonia was associated with an increased risk of two- to four-fold for HF hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality in both HFrEF and HFpEF patients.
Bacterial Pneumonia Far More Dangerous To The Heart Than Viral Pneumonia Study Finds
Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research from the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City.
In the study of nearly 5,000 patients, researchers found that patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia had a 60 percent greater risk of a heart attack, stroke, or death than patients who had been diagnosed with viral pneumonia.
“We’ve always known pneumonia was a risk factor for a major adverse cardiac event, like a heart attack, within the first 90 days of being diagnosed,” said J. Brent Muhlestein, MD, a cardiovascular researcher with the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center. “What we didn’t know was which type of pneumonia was more dangerous. The results of this study provided a clear answer, which will allow physicians to better monitor patients and focus on reducing their risk of a major adverse cardiac event.”
Results of the study will be presented during the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Chicago on Sunday, Nov. 11.
The Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center is part of the Intermountain Healthcare system based in Salt Lake City.
“The likely underlying cause is that bacterial pneumonia causes greater inflammation of the arteries compared to viral pneumonia,” said Dr. Muhlestein.
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Research On Heart Problems After Covid
Research shows that there is still a lot to learn about lasting heart effects on people who have had COVID-19. In some cases, patients are left with signs of heart damage that may call for continued monitoring.
Post cites a German study in which cardiac MRIs were conducted on 100 people who had the coronavirus and survived. The researchers saw abnormal findings in 78 of these patients. Compared with those who had not had COVID-19, these patients showed evidence of scarring and inflammation of the heart muscle and its surrounding tissue . However, this study was limited by the lack of an appropriate comparison group, and subsequent studies have found a much lower incidence of myocarditis in those who had a prior COVID-19 infection.
Another small study assessed 26 college athletes who had COVID-19 with mild symptoms or none at all. Cardiac MRI showed that these students had normal EKGs and normal levels of a substance called troponin, which when elevated can indicate heart problems. Four of them had heart muscle inflammation , and two of these had inflammation of the pericardium .
Post says these data have to be considered carefully, since the sample sizes are small, and the pre-COVID heart health of the participants wasnt known.
What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Congestive Heart Failure
- The degree to which other organ systems are involved and the severity of other accompanying conditions
- The person’s symptoms and degree of impairment
- Other factors that remain poorly understood
With the availability of newer drugs to potentially favorably affect the progression of the disease, the prognosis in congestive heart failure is generally more favorable than that observed just 10 years ago. In some cases, especially when the heart muscle dysfunction has recently developed, a significant spontaneous improvement is not uncommonly observed, even to the point where heart function becomes normal.
Heart failure is often graded on a scale of I to IV based on the patient’s ability to function.
The prognosis of heart failure patients is very closely associated with the functional class.
An important issue in congestive heart failure is the risk of heart rhythm disturbances . Of those deaths that occur in individuals with congestive heart failure, approximately 50% are related to progressive heart failure. Importantly, the other half are thought to be related to serious arrhythmias.
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