Inflammation In The Lungs
Pneumonia is inflammation of the air sacs in the lungs that is most often caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or other organisms. Occasionally, inhaled chemicals other non-infectious factors can cause lung inflammation . Age groups at the extremes, that is the very young and old, are more vulnerable to pneumonia. Healthy adults can usually fight off pneumonia caused by infections. However, it is easier for bacteria to grow in the lungs of people who are sick and have a weakened immune system, like those who are recovering from influenza or an upper respiratory illness. Pneumonia is the 6th leading cause of death for Americans age 65 years and older. Worldwide, pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children under age 5 years.
When air is inhaled through the nose or mouth, it travels down the trachea to the left bronchus and right bronchus, where it first enters the lungs. From the bronchus, air goes through the smaller bronchi, into the even smaller bronchioles, and lastly into the alveoli.
Ginger Or Turmeric Tea
A persistent cough can result in chest pain. Drinking warm tea made with fresh ginger or turmeric root may help reduce this pain.
The roots of both of these plants can have a natural anti-inflammatory effect in the body.
Chop up a thumb sized piece of either root and boil it in a pint or so of water. If a person prefers strong tea, they can boil it for longer or add more of the root. If the flavor is too sharp, they can try adding a spoonful of honey.
Pneumonia: When Should You Worry
Cold and flu season can be a scary time for a parent. Deciding when your child needs to see their doctor can always be a tough decision. As a parent, you always wonder if this illness is just a head cold or the dreaded pneumonia.
Pneumonia is defined as an infection of the air sac of the lungs. Pneumonia can produce a variety of symptoms, mostly depending on what caused the infection and how severe it is. Often pneumonia starts as a cough with fever or chills, and more severe cases can lead to breathing issues and admission to the hospital. Some people can even have chest pain that occurs when they cough or take a deep breath.
You should contact your childs pediatrician if the following symptoms appear:
- Cough with fever for more than 3-5 days if older than 1 year
- Lack of appetite
- Trouble breathing or fast breathing
Diagnosing pneumonia involves a physical exam, checking oxygen levels, and looking at the patients medical history. Sometimes a chest x-ray and blood work is needed. Treatment is determined by how severe the pneumonia is and what is thought to be causing it. In order to confirm the exact cause of the pneumonia, a sample must be taken from deep inside of the lungs. Because that is so difficult, many physicians treat patients based on their history and how sick they appear.
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Best Gifts To Celebrate Recovery From Pneumonia
There are many infections that affect the respiratory system, but one of the most common ones is pneumonia. Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, bacteria and fungus.
What happens is that the infection will cause inflammation in your lungs, specifically affecting the air sacs, also known as alveoli.
As the infection progresses, the alveoli fill with pus or fluid, making it very difficult for the patient to breathe. It can affect one or both lungs at the same time.
Several signs and symptoms to look out for are chest pain while breathing or coughing, fatigue, changes in mental status, sweating, chills, fever and cough with phlegm.
A doctor is recommended when there is difficulty breathing and a high fever.
Patients that have the highest risk of infection are the elderly , children under the age of two, people with an immunocompromised immune system and patients that are getting medical treatment such as chemotherapy.
There are many types of pneumonia, including community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, health-care acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia.
Hence, the recovery period will depend on the type of pneumonia and the severity of the case.
Having people that care about the patient during the recovery period is very important, and having options to celebrate their recovery is important as well.
Treatment for pneumonia is complex and may require hospitalization.
As a team , things to do together to prevent complications are:
Pneumonia Can Be Fatal
When you acquire pneumonia, it could affect only one lung, both lungs, or spread from one to the other. It causes the air sacs in your lungs, also called alveoli, to become inflamed. This is what makes it difficult to breathe. Doctors typically treat pneumonia with antibiotics, but it remains the leading cause of infectious disease death in children under age five across the world. As with the flu, pneumonia can also be deadly for elderly people.
Smokers and those with asthma have a greater likelihood of catching all different strains of the disease. However, bacterial infection is the most common cause among adults in the United States.
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What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is commonly caused by an infection with a germ. The germ is usually a bacterium or a virus. There are three or four different bacteria that are the most common causes of pneumonia. There is also a well-known group of bacteria that causes pneumonia in about 3 out of 10 cases. They are called atypicals. Other germs such as fungi, yeasts, or protozoa can sometimes also cause pneumonia.
Rarely, non-infective pneumonia is caused by inhaling poisons or chemicals. Many different substances can cause this. They can be in the form of liquids, gases, small particles, dust or fumes.
You may breathe in some bacteria, viruses, or other germs. If you are normally healthy, a small number of germs usually doesn’t matter. They will be trapped in your phlegm and killed by your immune system. Sometimes the germs multiply and cause lung infections. This is more likely to happen if you are already in poor health – for example:
- If you are frail or elderly.
- If you have a chest disease.
- If you have a low immunity to infection. Low immunity can be caused by such things as alcohol dependence, AIDS, or another serious illness.
However, even healthy people sometimes develop pneumonia.
Pneumonia can sometimes develop after an operation, particularly in the region of your head or neck. Having an anaesthetic can increase the risk.
Care Essential : Meet The Patients Nutritional Needs
For optimal outcomes, ventilator patients must be well nourished and should begin taking nutrition early. But like any patient who cant swallow normally, they need an alternative nutrition route. Preferably, they should have feeding tubes with liquid nutrition provided through the gut. If this isnt possible, the healthcare team will consider parenteral nutrition.
Patients with tracheostomy tubes may be able to swallow food. Follow the physicians orders and consult speech and respiratory therapists.
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Pneumonia Nursing Care For Patients With Lung Parenchyma Infection
Pneumonia is an infection in the lung parenchyma, particularly in the bronchioles and alveoli, which is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. On the other hand, Pneumonitis is an inflammation in the lung tissue which increases the patients risk of developing pneumonia.
Community-Acquired Pneumonia pneumonia acquired within the community or within the first 48 hours post hospitalisation or institutionalisation. Patient hospitalisation for pneumonia depends solely on the acquired pneumonia severity . CAUSES: Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Haemophilus Influenzae& Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.
Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia a.k.a. Nosocomial Pneumonia pneumonia acquired more than 48 hours after hospital admission with no prior infection symptoms exhibited. This type of pneumonia carries a higher mortality rate. CAUSES: Staphylococcus Aureus, Impaired Host Defenses, Comorbid Conditions , Supine Positioning& Prolonged Hospitalisation.
Immunocompromised Patient Pneumonia patients who are immunocompromised can easily develop pneumonia from organisms of low virulence .
Aspiration Pneumonia pneumonia acquired from entry of endogenous or exogenous substances into the lower respiratory tract. Aspirated substances impair the lung defenses , cause inflammation changes which then lead to bacterial growth, causing pneumonia. This type of pneumonia happens within the community or hospital setting.
Care Essential : Assess Pain And Sedation Needs
Even though your patient cant verbally express her needs, youll need to assess her pain level using a reliable scale. Keep in mind that a patients acknowledgment of pain means pain is present and must be treated. Two scales that help you evaluate your patients sedation level are the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and the Ramsay Sedation Scale.
Should you restrain an agitated ventilator patient to prevent extubation? Research shows self-extubation can occur despite physical restraints. Its best to treat agitation and anxiety with medication and nonpharmacologic methods, such as communication, touch, presence of family members, music, guided imagery, and distraction.
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Disease Process Leading To Pneumonia
Pneumonia-causing agents reach the lungs through different routes:
- In most cases, a person breathes in the infectious organism, which then travels through the airways to the lungs.
- Sometimes, the normally harmless bacteria in the mouth, or on items placed in the mouth or swallowed, can enter the lungs. This usually happens if the body’s “gag reflex,” an extreme throat contraction that keeps substances out of the lungs, is not working properly.
- Infections can spread through the bloodstream from other organs to the lungs.
However, in normal situations, the airways protect the lungs from substances that can cause infection.
- The nose filters out large particles.
- If smaller particles pass through, nerves along the airway prompt a cough or sneeze. This forces many particles back out of the body.
- Tiny particles that reach the small tubes in the lungs are trapped in a thick, sticky substance called mucus. The mucus and particles are pushed up and out of the lungs by tiny hair-like cells called cilia, which beat like a drum. This action is called the “mucociliary escalator.”
- If bacteria or other infectious organisms manage to avoid the airway’s defenses, the body’s immune system attacks them. Large white blood cells called macrophages destroy the foreign particles.
The above-mentioned defense systems normally keep the lungs healthy. If these defenses are weakened or damaged, however, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can easily infect the lungs, producing pneumonia.
A Lukewarm Bath Or Compress
Soaking the body in lukewarm water may help cool it down.
If it is not possible to take a bath, apply towels or washcloths to the body after dunking them in lukewarm water and wringing them out. This may help the body cool. When the towels warm up, dip them in the water again and reapply.
Chills are often a secondary symptom of a fever. The following home remedies may help ease chills:
Who Is At Risk
Anyone can develop pneumonia, but the risk is greater in babies and children aged 4 years and under and adults older than 65 years. Other risk factors include:
- recently having had a cold or the flu
- having a chronic lung condition
- having a weakened immune system
- being a patient in hospital.
In children, the risk of pneumonia is increased by:
- premature birth
Incubation Period And Symptoms Of Pneumonia
The incubation period is the time from when you pick up the pneumonia virus to when you actively display symptoms. Many variables affect this, including the type of pneumonia, your general health, and your age. You may assume that you have a cold or the flu when symptoms begin because they are quite similar. However, they last longer and become more severe with time instead of less.
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Pneumonia Patient Discharge Planning
- Teach proper administration and side effects of Antibiotic treatment
- Teach signs and symptoms of worsening condition
- Teach breathing and coughing exercises
- Follow-up with Chest X-ray to ensure recovery
- Warn patient that one episode of pneumonia leads to susceptibility of recurrent pneumonia episodes, thus, teach patient to avoid stress, fatigue, alcohol and smoking, all of which decrease the defense system of the lungs
- Advise patient about adequate nutrition as well as to rest and avoid excessive activity to avoid recurrent pneumonia episodes
- Encourage patient to take the yearly influenza vaccine to avoid getting influenza which can also lead to pneumonia
Below you can find a collection of videos that can help provide a more visual approach to Pneumonia Nursing Care.
Epidemiology Of Severe Pneumonia
Severe pneumonia lacks a unifying definition, however for community-acquired infection the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society definition being pneumonia which requires admission to an ICU is widely used. Although this definition concerns community-acquired pneumonia , it can also be extended to hospital-acquired pneumonia and pneumonia in the immunocompromised host. Ventilator-associated pneumonia , with its attributable mortality of 810% and its restriction to critically ill patients, can be similarly considered severe.
ARDS, being defined as respiratory compromise with bilateral radiographic infiltrates not fully explained by cardiac failure , clearly has considerable overlap with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia. It is therefore unsurprising that pneumonia constitutes around 60% of patients in studies of ARDS . The evidence which underpins practice in ARDS applies to those patients with severe pneumonia who meet the criteria for ARDS, and has been reviewed recently elsewhere and will be summarised below.
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Care Essential : Prevent Infection
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a major complication of mechanical ventilation. Much research has focused on how best to prevent VAP. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement includes the following components in its best-practices VAP prevention bundle:
- Keep the head of the bed elevated 30 to 45 degrees at all times, if patient condition allows. Healthcare providers tend to overestimate bed elevation, so gauge it by looking at the bed frame rather than by simply estimating.
- Every day, provide sedation vacations and assess readiness to extubate, indicated by vital signs and arterial blood gas values within normal ranges as well as the patient taking breaths on her own.
- Provide peptic ulcer disease prophylaxis, as with a histamine-2 blocker such as famotidine.
- Provide deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, as with an intermittent compression device.
- Perform oral care with chlorhexidine daily.
Other measures that decrease VAP risk include extubating the patient as quickly as possible, performing range-of-motion exercises and patient turning and positioning to prevent the effects of muscle disuse, having the patient sit up when possible to improve gas exchange, and providing appropriate nutrition to prevent a catabolic state. Assess the patients tolerance when she performs an activity by checking vital signs, oxygenation status, and pain and agitation levels.
Aims And Scope Of Guidance
Given the large numbers of patients admitted to hospital in a short period of time, the aims of this guidance are to ensure that patients are followed-up in a timely but practical manner, ensuring the early identification of respiratory complications integrating factors such as disease severity, likelihood of long-term respiratory sequelae and functional disability .
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How Can I Avoid Getting Pneumonia
To help prevent pneumonia, do the following:
- Get the flu vaccination every year it can help prevent pneumonia caused by the flu virus. Read more about the flu vaccine.
- Get a pneumococcal vaccination this vaccine is especially recommended for anyone at high risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. Read more about pneumococcal vaccine.
- Stop smoking smoking damages your lung’s ability to fight infection. Read more about tips to quit smoking.
- Wash your hands often or use an alcohol-based hand sanitiser.
- Stay rested and fit.
- Stay home when you’re sick.
- Avoid people who have a cold or the flu.
Ventilator Settings And Modes
Generally, ventilators display ordered settings and patient parameters. Check the following settings:
- respiratory rate, the number of breaths provided by the ventilator each minute. Manually count the patients respiratory rate, because she may be taking her own breaths at a rate above the ventilator setting.
- fraction of inspired oxygen , expressed as a percentage .
- tidal volume , the volume of air inhaled with each breath, expressed in milliliters
- peak inspiratory pressure , the pressure needed to provide each breath. Target PIP is below 30 cm H2O. High PIP may indicate a kinked tube, a need for suctioning, bronchospasm, or a lung problem, such as pulmonary edema or pneumothorax.
To find out which ventilation mode or method your patient is receiving, check the ventilator itself or the respiratory flow sheet. The mode depends on patient variables, including the indication for mechanical ventilation.
Some patients may receive adjuvant therapy, such as positive end-expiratory pressure . With PEEP, a small amount of continuous pressure is added to the airway to increase therapeutic effectiveness. In many cases, PEEP is added to reduce oxygen requirements.
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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
A new cause of severe pneumonia was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. Within a year, 58 cases, including 33 deaths, were reported in Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates , France, Germany, Italy, Tunisia, and the United Kingdom. Since 2012 there have been over 1730 cases. The World Health Organization warns this new viral illness could become a pandemic. However, person-to-person transmission has been limited to close contacts. In the United States, no cases of MERS have been reported since 2014.
What You Need To Know:
Pneumonia is an infection in your lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. You can become infected if you come in contact with someone who is sick. You can get pneumonia if you recently had surgery or needed a ventilator to help you breathe. Pneumonia can also be caused by accidentally inhaling saliva or small pieces of food. Pneumonia may cause mild symptoms, or it can be severe and life-threatening.
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