Monday, September 26, 2022

Does Pneumonia Affect Your Heart

Early Stage Of Pneumonia

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The symptoms of the first stage of pneumonia, or what you might expect in the first 24 hours, are very important to understand. When pneumonia is detected at this stage, and promptly treated, the severity of the disease and potential complications may be reduced.

Most commonly, lobar pneumonia begins suddenly with fairly dramatic symptoms.

With pneumonia , the tiniest airways of the lungs are affected. Since this is where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place , pneumonia may cause symptoms related to lower oxygen levels in the body. In addition, lobar pneumonia often extends to the membranes surrounding the lungs , which can lead to particular symptoms.

Social Determinants Of Health

Social determinants such as neighborhood disadvantage, immigration status, lack of social support, social isolation, access to health services play an important role in myocardial infarction risk and survival. Studies have shown that low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of poorer survival. There are well-documented disparities in myocardial infarction survival by socioeconomic status, race, education, and census-tract-level poverty.

Race: In the U.S. African Americans have a greater burden of myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular events. On a population level, there is a higher overall prevalence of risk factors that are unrecognized and therefore not treated, which places these individuals at a greater likelihood of experiencing adverse outcomes and therefore potentially higher morbidity and mortality.

Socioeconomic status: Among individuals who live in the low-socioeconomic areas, which is close to 25% of the US population, myocardial infarctions occurred twice as often compared with people who lived in higher SES areas.

Immigration status: In 2018 many lawfully present immigrants who are eligible for coverage remain uninsured because immigrant families face a range of enrollment barriers, including fear, confusion about eligibility policies, difficulty navigating the enrollment process, and language and literacy challenges. Uninsured undocumented immigrants are ineligible for coverage options due to their immigration status.

Pneumonia And Cardiovascular Complications

Pneumonia is a disease affecting the lung parenchyma causing inflammation of the alveoli leading to inflammatory exudate filling the alveolar spaces. The main causative agents are bacteria, fungi, and viral agents despite the respiratory tract being always in contact with air that has hundreds to thousands of microorganisms per cubic meter, it is well adapted to defend our bodies from any virulent organism . Nonetheless, in a case where the host defenses fail, and a virulent factor penetrates through our protective mechanisms, and get to the lung, the inflammatory reaction triggered by the macrophages within the lungs cause histopathological changes within the lung itself and in turn affects the functionality of the lungs leading to hypoxia, and if left untreated may lead to respiratory failure . Despite respiratory failure due to hypoxemia being one of the most commonly noted complications of pneumonia, pneumonia has also been found to cause other cardiovascular complications or worsening of preexisting cardiac conditions .

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Can Coronavirus Cause Heart Damage

Can COVID-19 damage the heart? Yes: Although COVID-19 the disease caused by the coronavirus thats led to the global pandemic is primarily a respiratory or lung disease, the heart can also suffer.

Early reports coming out of China and Italy, two areas where COVID-19 took hold earlier in the pandemic, show that up to 1 in 5 patients with the illness end up with heart damage. Heart failure has been the cause of death in COVID-19 patients, even those without severe breathing problems such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, or ARDS.

Not all heart problems related to this coronavirus officially called SARS-CoV-2are alike, however. Cardiologist Erin Michos, M.D., M.H.S., explains the different ways the virus and the bodys response to it can cause heart damage.

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The Effects of Pneumonia on the Body

Michos explains that cells in the lung and heart are both covered with protein molecules called angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, or ACE-2. The ACE-2 protein is the doorway that the new coronavirus uses to enter cells and multiply.

ACE-2 normally plays a favorable role in protecting tissue by being anti-inflammatory. But if the new coronavirus somehow disables those molecules, these cells may be left unprotected when the immune system springs into action.

There are multiple mechanisms for heart damage in COVID-19, and not everyone is the same, Michos says. Temporary or lasting damage to heart tissue can be due to several factors:

Lack of oxygen. As the virus causes inflammation and fluid to fill up the air sacs in the lungs, less oxygen can reach the bloodstream. The heart has to work harder to pump blood through the body, which can be dangerous in people with pre-existing heart disease. The heart can fail from overwork, or insufficient oxygen can cause cell death and tissue damage in the heart and other organs.

Myocarditis: inflammation of the heart. The coronavirus may infect and damage the hearts muscle tissue directly, as is possible with other viral infections, including some strains of the flu. The heart may also become damaged and inflamed indirectly by the bodys own immune system response.

Stay on Top of Your Heart Health

If you have a new or existing heart problem, it’s vital to see a doctor. Our heart health checklist can help you determine when to seek care.

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How Can I Tell If I Have Pneumonia Versus The Common Cold Or The Flu

Do I have a cold or could it be the flu or even pneumonia? Its tough to tell the difference but critical to know when to seek medical care

Watch for these ongoing symptoms that occur in pneumonia:

  • Serious congestion or chest pain.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • A fever of 102 or higher.
  • Coughing that produces pus.

Pneumonia symptoms last longer than cold and flu. If your symptoms arent severe, its okay to try such home remedies as getting more rest, drinking more fluids and taking some over-the-counter medicines and see what happens. But if you dont see improvement in your symptoms after three to five days, or if you are experiencing more serious symptoms such as dizziness or severe difficulty breathing, see your healthcare provider. Dont let it go. Pneumonia-like symptoms in very young children or in adults older than 65 are a cause for concern. Also, pneumonia can cause permanent lung damage if left untreated for too long. And always seek immediate care if you experience chest pain or have breathing difficulties.

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Treating Fluid Around The Heart

Treating fluid around the heart will depend on the underlying cause, as well as your age and your general health.

If your symptoms arent severe and youre in stable condition, you may be given antibiotics to treat an infection, aspirin to numb discomfort, or both. If the fluid around your lungs is related to inflammation, you may also be given nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen .

If fluid around your heart continues to build up, the pericardium can put so much pressure on your heart that it becomes dangerous. In these cases, your doctor may recommend draining the fluid through a catheter inserted into your chest or open-heart surgery to repair your pericardium and your heart.

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Tips On Preventing Pneumonia In Older Adults

What else can you do other than watch out for symptoms of pneumonia in the elderly? Here are our recommendations for pneumonia prevention:

  • Get vaccinated There are two vaccines that help prevent pneumococcal disease, and both vaccines are safe and effective. Have a discussion with your doctor about getting immunized and review your vaccination status with them to make sure youre up to date.
  • Practice good personal hygiene The best way to get rid of germs in most situations is by washing your hands with soap and water. If those are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. These simple precautions go a long way.
  • Quit smoking Smoking causes significant changes in your lungs and airways. It leads to lung defenses becoming compromised, which makes people more susceptible to catching the disease. The risk increases according to the intensity of smoking, but its best not to do overall.
  • Always finish a course of antibiotics Even if you feel better, finish a prescribed course of antibiotics . If patients stop taking medication before theyre told to, the bacteria can become resistant to the antibiotic.
  • Strengthen the immune system A weakened immune system makes people prone to infections from germs that do not often cause disease in healthy people. Get enough sleep, exercise regularly, and eat a healthy diet.

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What Causes Pneumonia In Elderly Adults

Pneumonia Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Nursing | Respiratory Disorders NCLEX Lecture Part 1

Pneumonia is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms. In the U.S., pneumonia in the elderly is usually caused by bacteria or a virus.

Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common type of bacterial pneumonia, affecting more than 900,000 Americans each year, according to the ALA. This type of pneumonia is caused by a germ called Streptococcus pneumoniae. It can occur on its own or after someone has a cold or the flu.

These groups are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia:

  • Adults 65 and older
  • People with a weakened immune system
  • Patients recovering from surgery
  • People with other respiratory conditions or viral infections

Viruses can also cause pneumonia. The influenza virus is the most common cause of viral pneumonia in adults. Pneumonia caused by the influenza virus can be severe and even deadly, especially in people with other health conditions such as heart or lung disease.

Coronavirus disease 2019 can also cause a severe type of double pneumonia that may lead to long-lasting lung damage. It may take several months to recover. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 can sometimes be fatal, especially in high-risk populations like elderly adults.

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Heart Problems After Covid

    For people who have had COVID-19, lingering COVID-19 heart problems can complicate their recovery.

    Some of the symptoms common in coronavirus long-haulers, such as palpitations, dizziness, chest pain and shortness of breath, may be due to heart problems or, just from having been ill with COVID-19. How do you tell if your symptoms are heart-related, and what can you expect if they are?

    Cardiologist Wendy Post, M.D., clarifies which post-coronavirus symptoms may point to a heart issue, when to call your doctor, and other facts all long-term COVID-19 survivors should know.

    Bacteremia And Septic Shock

    If bacteria caused your pneumonia, they could get into your blood, especially if you didn’t see a doctor for treatment. It’s a problem called bacteremia.

    Bacteremia can lead to a serious situation known as . It’s a reaction to the infection in your blood, and it can cause your blood pressure to drop to a dangerous level.

    When your blood pressure is too low, your heart may not be able to pump enough blood to your organs, and they can stop working. Get medical help right away if you notice symptoms like:

    Your doctor can test your mucus or the pus in your lungs to look for infection. They may also take an X-ray or a CT scan of your lungs.

    Your doctor will likely treat your lung abscesses with antibiotics. They may do a procedure that uses a needle to remove the pus.

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    Bacterial Pneumonia Far More Dangerous To The Heart Than Viral Pneumonia

    Date:
    Intermountain Medical Center
    Summary:
    Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research.

    Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research from the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City.

    In the study of nearly 5,000 patients, researchers found that patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia had a 60 percent greater risk of a heart attack, stroke, or death than patients who had been diagnosed with viral pneumonia.

    “We’ve always known pneumonia was a risk factor for a major adverse cardiac event, like a heart attack, within the first 90 days of being diagnosed,” said J. Brent Muhlestein, MD, a cardiovascular researcher with the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center. “What we didn’t know was which type of pneumonia was more dangerous. The results of this study provided a clear answer, which will allow physicians to better monitor patients and focus on reducing their risk of a major adverse cardiac event.”

    Results of the study will be presented during the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Chicago on Sunday, Nov. 11, at 10:30 a.m. CT.

    The Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center is part of the Intermountain Healthcare system based in Salt Lake City.

    Congenital Heart Disease And Pregnancy

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    Many women with congenital heart disease can have a healthy pregnancy, but pregnancy puts an extra strain on the heart and can cause problems.

    If you have congenital heart disease and you’re considering having a baby, you should discuss it with your heart specialist before getting pregnant.

    If you have congenital heart disease and you become pregnant, you must get help from healthcare professionals with experience in treating pregnant women with a history of the condition.

    Read more about congenital heart disease in pregnancy.

    If you have congenital heart disease and become pregnant, your congenital heart specialist will usually arrange an echocardiogram for your baby approximately 20 weeks into your pregnancy. This is to check whether your baby has any evidence of congenital heart disease. This scan will be in addition to your usual antenatal ultrasound scans.

    Page last reviewed: 07 September 2021 Next review due: 07 September 2024

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    Pneumonia As A Cardiovascular Disease

    Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Luis F. Reyes

    Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Luis F. Reyes

    Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

    Bacterial Pneumonia Far More Dangerous To The Heart Than Viral Pneumonia Study Finds

    by Intermountain Medical Center

    Heart complications in patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia are more serious than in patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia, according to new research from the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City.

    In the study of nearly 5,000 patients, researchers found that patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia had a 60 percent greater risk of a heart attack, stroke, or death than patients who had been diagnosed with viral pneumonia.

    “We’ve always known pneumonia was a risk factor for a major adverse cardiac event, like a heart attack, within the first 90 days of being diagnosed,” said J. Brent Muhlestein, MD, a cardiovascular researcher with the Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center. “What we didn’t know was which type of pneumonia was more dangerous. The results of this study provided a clear answer, which will allow physicians to better monitor patients and focus on reducing their risk of a major adverse cardiac event.”

    Results of the study will be presented during the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Chicago on Sunday, Nov. 11.

    The Intermountain Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center is part of the Intermountain Healthcare system based in Salt Lake City.

    “The likely underlying cause is that bacterial pneumonia causes greater inflammation of the arteries compared to viral pneumonia,” said Dr. Muhlestein.

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    How Can Home Care Help Seniors Who Are Recovering From Pneumonia

    Whether you are a senior or their loved one, it is important to remember that the goal of pneumonia recovery at home should be getting back into good health so they can do what they love. Sometimes this means having someone else on hand for help, like a home care companion or nurse!

    The best care for seniors is often found in their own homes. Elite Care at Home can provide that support by providing respite and assistance during difficult days, plus our caregivers are trained to help with daily tasks such as preparing meals and reminding them of important appointments. Call our local office today!

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    Pathophysiology Of Hypoxia And Ph

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    Respiratory failure secondary to hypoxia is usually a result of two main mechanisms. The first one being that during inflammation, the alveoli are filled with inflammatory exudate. The inflammatory exudate reduces the available surface area of the alveoli that are used in gas exchange . The second mechanism is through V/Q mismatch . The V/Q ratio is the amount of air reaching the alveoli per minute to the amount of blood reaching the alveoli from the capillaries per minute. Perfusion within the lung is affected by subatmospheric intrapleural pressure and gravity as a result, perfusion is higher at the lower lobes than at the peak of the lungs. These differences have a significant impact on the V/Q ratio-the V/Q ratio is higher on the apex of the lung than on the base of the lung . If the lung is taken as a whole, the mean V/Q ratio is around 0.8. During the acute phase of pneumonia, the pulmonary vascular system continues to maintain blood flow to the affected regions of the lung, and this causes an intrapulmonary shunt . In such cases, if there is a low V/Q ratio, it causes a decrease in the PAO2 which later causes a decrease in the PaO2 causing hypoxemia.

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