Saturday, October 1, 2022

Does Pneumonia Cause Scar Tissue

What About My Pulmonary Fibrosis Therapies/treatments

Is There A Cure For Scar Tissue On The Lungs?

It depends on the type of treatment/therapy you receive.

If you are a lung transplant recipient, there are unique considerations when it comes to preventing COVID-19. A recent study shows that you may not gain sufficient immunity after the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine .

In other words, you might not be as protected as the general population. Therefore, it is important that you and your household members remain vigilant about the measures we know are effective in stopping the spread, including social distancing, mask-wearing, and handwashing.

All things considered, it is best to talk to your healthcare provider or pulmonologist if you have specific questions or concerns about your treatment.

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Causes And Risk Factors

Some people get pulmonary fibrosis when they’re exposed to something like pollution, certain medicines, or an infection. But doctors don’t know what causes IPF. That’s what idiopathic means.

Some risk factors might make you more likely to get IPF:

  • Age. Almost everyone diagnosed with IPF is over 50.
  • Breathing in wood or metal dust at work or home
  • Gender. About 75% of people diagnosed with IPF are men.
  • Genetics. Up to 20% of people who have IPF have a family member with a similar lung disease.
  • Having acid reflux disease
  • Smoking cigarettes

What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a group of serious lung diseases that affect the respiratory system. Pulmonary fibrosis scars and thickens lung tissue. It impacts the connecting tissue in the lung and the alveoli .

The lung damage gradually gets worse over time. Hard, stiff lung tissues dont expand as well as they should, making it harder to breathe. Pulmonary fibrosis may cause shortness of breath when you do routine tasks that never seemed tiring before.

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Further Information About The Study

The study is funded as part of UKRIs COVID-19 Agile Call, which has so far invested more than £180 million in over 450 projects and consortia to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Anyone wishing to enquire about participating in the study, who has had COVID-19 and symptoms suggestive of possible lung scarring , should email the study:

Ongoing Research Into Pneumonia

Language of the Chest X

At UCL, Professor Brown leads an internationally recognised research group into the pneumococcus aiming to identify why it can cause pneumonia, and to develop new vaccines or other treatments to prevent pneumonia. The research is mainly laboratory-based and has been funded by the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust as well as local charities. His group has published multiple research papers on pneumonia or the pneumococcus, including recent papers describing new methods of trying to prevent infections using novel vaccine approaches.

In addition, Professor Brown is an author on a scientific textbook describing how the pneumococcus is capable of causing pneumonia that was published in 2015, was part of the committee that wrote the National Institute for Clinical Excellence pneumonia guidelines published at the end of 2014, and is a member of the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation advising the government on vaccination policy .

Visit our research pages for more information on our research.

Breathing Matters Impact Report 2021

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Coronavirus: Warning Thousands Could Be Left With Lung Damage

BBC News

Tens of thousands of people will need to be recalled to hospital after a serious Covid-19 infection to check if they have been left with permanent lung damage, doctors have told the BBC.

Experts are concerned a significant proportion could be left with lung scarring, known as pulmonary fibrosis.

The condition is irreversible and symptoms can include severe shortness of breath, coughing and fatigue.

NHS England said it was opening specialist rehabilitation centres.

Retired taxi driver Anthony McHugh, 68, was admitted to hospital on 6 March with coronavirus symptoms. His condition deteriorated and he was transferred to intensive care and placed on a ventilator for 13 days.

“I was feeling breathless, then I just remember being rushed into ICU, and after that it was all just a blank,” he said.

How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed

Your healthcare provider will ask you about your medical history. Youll also have a physical exam to carefully evaluate your symptoms. They may use a stethoscope to listen to you breathe, listening for abnormal sounds .

Pulmonary fibrosis can look a lot like other, more common lung diseases, which can make diagnosis challenging. Your provider may also order one or more tests to diagnose pulmonary fibrosis:

  • Blood tests: Your provider may order blood tests to rule out other illnesses or reasons for your symptoms. Lab tests can also help providers track disease progression after diagnosis.
  • Imaging tests: A chest X-ray or a CT scan may help rule out other lung-related illnesses. These pictures can clearly show lung scarring and may confirm a pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis.
  • Breathing tests: These tests are also called pulmonary function tests. Different devices measure lung function and capacity .
  • Oxygen desaturation study: This test measures oxygen levels in your blood. You walk for six minutes with a probe attached to your finger or forehead.
  • Biopsy: A surgeon removes a small lung tissue sample through a small incision in the ribs. Providers sometimes perform a lung biopsy to confirm a pulmonary fibrosis diagnosis.

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Pulmonary Fibrosis In Covid

Ademola S. Ojo

1Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. Georges University School of Medicine, St. Georges, Grenada

2Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria

4Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile Ife, Nigeria

Abstract

1. Introduction

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus nCoV-19 , responsible for the coronavirus disease-19 , was first reported in Hubei province, China, on December 31, 2019. It has rapidly spread globally with approximately 3 million confirmed infections and 200,000 deaths within the first four months . Similar to the etiological agents in previous human coronavirus outbreaks and Middle East respiratory syndrome ), SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system. Clinical, radiographic, and autopsy reports of pulmonary fibrosis were commonplace following SARS and MERS, and current evidence suggests pulmonary fibrosis could complicate infection by SARS-CoV-2 . Pulmonary fibrosis is also a known sequela of severe and/or persistent damage to the lung from other causes such as connective tissue disorders, chronic granulomatous diseases, medications, and respiratory infections .

2. Methodology

3. Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Fibrosis

4. Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Associated Lung Injury

5. The Role of the Immune System in COVID-19-Associated Lung Injury

Is Scarring Of The Lungs Serious

Lung Disease: Pulmonary Fibrosis

Small areas of lung scarring typically arent serious. They shouldnt affect your quality of life or life expectancy.

That said, widespread and expanding scars on the lung may indicate an underlying health condition. This underlying condition may affect your quality of life and overall health. In these cases, your doctor will determine the source of the scarring and deal with it directly.

In extreme cases of lung scarring, doctors may have to surgically replace the lung. This is known as a lung transplant.

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Pneumonia In Young Children And Subsequent Adult Lung Disease

Throughout the last three decades evidence has emerged suggesting that adult-onset chronic pulmonary disorders are likely to have their origins in early life. Here we review the evidence of the published data.

There are two published systematic reviews on the long-term impact of childhood pneumonia , with one review also including studies relating to bronchiectasis. As the authors used different search terms, there were both similarities and differences between the two reviews. Nevertheless, the Thomson et al review involved two additional prospective studies on radiographically confirmed pneumonia.

Here, we summarise studies identified from these reviews and our own search with a focus on prospective and case-control studies. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database using the terms children and pneumonia and long term, respectively in their titles or abstracts without language restrictions. Studies published prior to 13 April 2015 were included.

Is It Possible To Reverse Lung Scarring From Pneumonia

The scarring in the lungs is irreversible. It cannot be reversed once it has been established. You must, however, seek medical attention as soon as possible to be properly diagnosed and treated. Scarring may be treated by addressing the underlying cause. Many drugs exist that may help decrease scarring and restore normal lung function. Numerous treatments are available, including oxygen therapy and immunosuppressant medications. Although correcting permanent lung scarring from pneumonia is not feasible, better therapy choices are available that allow you to live a normal life with optimal lung functioning.

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What Puts Me At A Greater Risk For Covid

Your age may play a role in the severity of your COVID-19 symptoms if you contract the virus.

The main factors that can affect your risk of COVID-19 lung damage are:

  • Disease severity: Milder cases are less likely to cause lasting scars in the lung tissue, according to John Hopkins Medicine.
  • Health conditions: The CDC has a list of specific underlying medical conditions that put you at an increased risk of having a severe case of COVID-19.
  • Age: Those of advanced age are at a greater risk of severe COVID-19 cases, due to a weaker immune system and less elasticity in the lungs.
  • Treatment: Once you test positive, how fast you get care and what type of care you receive can make a difference in minimizing potential lung damage.
  • Early Lung Growth And Development

    Why Is My Lung Scarred From Pneumonia

    Respiratory infections with consequent inflammatory responses may interrupt the critical alveolarisation phase of lung development, restricting alveolar numbers and/or size and leading to often mild, but impaired lung growth. The association between pneumonia and obstructive lung disease is possibly through similar mechanisms to those leading to bronchiectasis, which is an obstructive lung disease. Lung infections at the peak periods of somatic lung growth may also alter the programming of lung development at a local or systemic level. The effects of early infection, especially viral lower respiratory tract infections, upon lung growth, programming and future lung function disease types are beyond the scope of this review and readers are referred to the respiratory literature .

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    Symptoms Of Lung Scarring From Pneumonia

    The following are the signs and symptoms of lung scarring from pneumonia:

    Night sweats and chills, in addition to the signs and symptoms mentioned above, indicate lung scarring from pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs and other signs of scarring go hand in hand. Theres no harm in seeing a doctor if youve developed lung scarring. Only after determining the etiology of scarred lungs can proper therapy be administered. Treatment options include lung transplants, medication, and oxygen supplementation. In the early stages, scarring of the lungs is not harmful. However, if the scarring is severe, it is necessary to seek medical attention.

    Lung Damage Complications In Covid

    As we near the year mark of the COVID-19 battle, doctors and surgeons are still learning about the virus and the potential long-term health concerns COVID survivors may endure. We know people with COVID-19 have reported a wide range of symptoms varying from mild to severe, and now physicians are reporting some patients lungs look worse than the lungs of people who have been smoking for years.

    Thoracic surgeon Rachel Medbery, M.D. recently shared what she is seeing firsthand when treating COVID survivors with lung damage on Fox 7 Austin and The List.

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    Patients With Severe Covid Develop Pronounced Scarring Of Lungs Say Researchers

    A majority of patients with severe Covid-19 develop unusually pronounced scarring of the lungs, due to misguided immune response, according to a team of researchers led by Charite – Universitatsmediz in Berlin, in the journal Cell.

    They said that macrophages – immune cells which engulf and digest foreign substances – play a central role. In patients with severe COVID-19, damage to the lungs is so severe that the body can no longer absorb sufficient oxygen from the air – a condition known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome .

    “At the very least, SARS-CoV-2 is a potential trigger for a misguided macrophage response,” explained Prof. Dr. Matthias Selbach, from the Max DelbrAck Center for Molecular Medicine .

    “Rather than replicating inside the immune cells, the virus appears to reprogramme them,” he added.

    The researchers considered a number of potential causes for this prolonged lung failure, including a particular type of ARDS, which causes pulmonary scarring leading to tissue thickening and stiffness.

    Tissue remodelling of this type had been observed in certain patients relatively early on in the pandemic.

    As part of their research, the team used a number of microscopic imaging techniques to study lung tissue from deceased Covid-19 patients.

    The reason for this phenomenon was initially unclear.

    In patients with Covid-19, respiratory failure typically only develops in week two or three after symptom onset, at a point when viral loads have started to decline.

    Are Clinical Trials An Option

    How pneumonia affects the lungs

    It is always important to discuss treatment options with your physician. This may lead to secondary opinions or the possibility of being in a clinical trial. There are a number of clinical trials across the country that can be found at clinicaltrials.gov where new drugs are being tested or current drugs are being evaluated in different ways. If you live near a major academic center, it is worth reviewing their website for pulmonary fibrosis clinical trials for which you might be a candidate.

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    Leading Pulmonologists Discuss How To Change The Path Of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Disease In Kuwait

    • IPF is a progressive and fatal disease in which tissue deep in lungs becomes thick and stiff, or scarred, over time. The formation of scar tissue is called fibrosis
    • The disease is rare and can be challenging to diagnose. It is important to raise more awareness around IPF prevalence, due to general data unavailability from the Middle East region.
    • IPF affects as many as 14-43 people per 100,000 worldwide.
    • The diagnosis and management of patients with IPF continues to pose significant challenges

    Kuwait 24 October, 2016: Boehringer Ingelheim, one of the worlds leading pharmaceutical companies recently held an informative forum that addressed the burden of IPF in Kuwait.

    The event, which was held under the theme of Changing the path of IPF, took place in The Regency hotel – Kuwait, and included around 50 leading pulmonologists who have highlighted the pathology of IPF, radiological implications as well as diagnosis and management. During the session, the results of a thorough research about IPF in Kuwait and the new available treatment have been also discussed.

    IPF is a chronic and ultimately fatal disease characterized by a progressive decline in lung function. The disease scars patients lungs and reduces breathing efficiency. The build-up of scar tissue is called fibrosis, which causes the lungs to become stiffer and lose their elasticity so theyre less able to inflate and take oxygen.

    Covid Pneumonia: How Long Does Recovery Take

    You’re likely familiar with the common, mild symptoms of COVID-19 including fever, dry cough and fatigue.

    But, in more severe cases, COVID-19 can also cause serious complications, including pneumonia.

    “We still have a lot to learn about COVID-19, particularly about the havoc it can wreak on the lungs and the pneumonia it causes, which is often now called COVID pneumonia,” says Dr. Rayman Lee, pulmonologist at Houston Methodist.

    That being said, there’s still plenty that experts like Dr. Lee do know about COVID pneumonia, including about how long it can take to fully recover from it.

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    Studies Strengths And Weaknesses

    The major strengths of the community-based birth cohort studies are the recruitment of unselected subjects and their longitudinal nature spanning several decades, which allowed prospectively collected infant and early childhood exposure data to be analysed with those describing adult respiratory outcomes . Important limitations though are losses to follow-up, which included those who had died shortly after discharge from hospital and from chronic pulmonary disorders, such as COPD in the older aged cohorts , as well as those who were too unwell to attend or to perform satisfactory lung function tests. One study assessed only men , while those lost to follow-up were usually socioeconomically disadvantaged and may have been at greater risk of respiratory morbidity, even if they had never smoked . The early birth cohorts were also conducted before antibiotics were available. Thus the nature or likelihood of injury to the developing lung during alveolarisation may differ whether or not cases of bacterial pneumonia received antibiotics.

    What Lung Complications Are Covid Survivors Experiencing

    Chest X

    Some patients seem to have minimal lung damage and others seem to have their lungs be totally destroyed, Dr. Medbery explains. Interestingly, what we are seeing on imaging does not always correlate with how symptomatic the patient may be.

    Its unclear why some patients experience far worse damage to their lung tissues than others. Dr. Medbery reports seeing some post-COVID sequelae like fibrosis , pneumonia causing fibrothorax, cystic disease-causing pneumothorax.

    At this time, it is difficult to say what the lasting effects of COVID will be on the lungs. Were still learning so much about the lungs and how they will heal and if they will heal, Dr. Medbery says. We know that as soon as smokers stop smoking, the lungs can heal. But we are so early in the course of COVID, we dont know if COVID survivors lungs will heal.

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    Pain That Comes On Years Later

    In some cases, pain from scar tissue is noticeable right away. In others, the pain may come on years later. Sometimes this has to do with nerves that develop after the injury itself heals. Another possibility is that a severe burn or a deep wound can eventually affect underlying bones and joints, leading to subsequent pain at the site of the scar tissue.

    For internal damage, the pain may develop as a result of the scar tissue taking place of healthy tissues, such as in the case of lung and liver diseases. As your condition progresses, you may feel pain from a lack of functioning of these body parts, along with other related symptoms.

    For example, scar tissue that develops in your lungs can be a result of pulmonary fibrosis. You might experience a painful cough along with shortness of breath, achy joints, and fatigue. Fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver may not be painful at first, but the scar tissues that accumulate may cause jaundice, fluid retention, and bruising of the skin.

    Despite your level of pain, treatments are available for scar tissue and its uncomfortable symptoms and appearance. Talk to your doctor about the following approaches.

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