Saturday, October 1, 2022

Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

Do You Need To Get Both Vaccines

Streptococcus pneumoniae and flu vaccines | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Most people do not, but some may, depending on age and other health conditions.

Children

All healthy children should get PCV13, and children with certain health conditions should also receive PPSV23. When both vaccines are needed, they are given 8 weeks apart, and PCV13 is given first.

Adults aged 65 and over

All adults aged 65 and older should get PPSV23. If you are a healthy adult over 65, you should talk to your healthcare provider about whether you need PCV13.

PCV13 used to be recommended for all adults over age 65, but the ACIP recently changed its recommendations. This is because, as more children have been vaccinated with PCV13, the types of pneumococci that this vaccine protects against are less likely to spread and infect older adults. PCV13 can still be given, and your healthcare provider can help you decide if it is right for you.

Adults younger than 65

For adults younger than 65, PPSV23 is recommended in certain situations. If you smoke or have a chronic illness, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or liver disease, you should get PPSV23 at a younger age. Adults with other conditions, like a weakened immune system, should have both vaccines before age 65.

Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

These include:

  • redness where the injection was given
  • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. This bacteria commonly shortened to pneumococcus is a common cause of pneumonia and other invasive diseases. An invasive disease is when a germ is in a part of the body thats usually germ-free.

Pneumonia is a lung infection that can affect people of all ages. Although pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, pneumococcus is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia.

Meningitis a serious infection that surrounds the brain and spinal cord can be caused by a variety of germs, including pneumococcus. Pneumococcus can also cause blood infections , sinus infections, and ear infections.

Pneumococcal vaccines are available to help protect against pneumococcal disease. More on this below.

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How Pneumococcal Vaccination Protects Against Covid

Protection against serious COVID-19 disease by pneumococcal and Hib vaccines makes sense for several reasons. First, recent studies reveal that the majority of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and in some studies nearly all, are infected with streptococci, which causes pneumococcal pneumonias, Hib or other pneumonia-causing bacteria. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccinations should protect coronavirus patients from these infections and thus significantly cut the risk of serious pneumonia.

I also found that pneumococcal, Hib and possibly rubella vaccines may confer specific protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 by means of molecular mimicry.

Molecular mimicry occurs when the immune system thinks one microbe looks like another. In this case, proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines and, to a lesser degree, ones found in Hib and rubella vaccines as well look like several proteins produced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Two of these proteins found in pneumococcal vaccines mimic the spike and membrane proteins that permit the virus to infect cells. This suggests pneumococcal vaccination may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two other mimics are the nucleoprotein and replicase that control virus replication. These proteins are made after viral infection, in which case pneumococcal vaccination may control, but not prevent, SARS-CoV-2 replication.

Is It True That More Than One Type Of Infection Can Cause Meningitis

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Yes. Everyone has heard it on the news the story of a local student infected with meningitis. Such a report inevitably results in many questions and a great amount of concern and even fear among families with children in the affected school.

There are some important considerations when this happens. First, it is important to remember that meningitis refers to an infection that has reached the lining of the brain and spinal cord. Second, it can be caused by viruses or bacteria .

Viral meningitis, the most common type of meningitis, is often less severe than bacterial meningitis. Vaccine-preventable diseases that can cause viral meningitis include measles, mumps, chickenpox and influenza.

Most, but not all, cases of bacterial meningitis can be prevented by vaccination. The bacteria most often associated with meningitis include meningococcus, pneumococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B . Fortunately, by the age of 2, most children are fully immunized against pneumococcus and Hib and most adolescents are protected against meningococcus.

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How Do You Catch Pneumococcus

Pneumococcus is a bacterium that is commonly found lining the surface of the nose and the back of the throat in fact, about 25 of every 100 people are colonized with pneumococcus. Many children will come in contact with pneumococcus sometime in the first two years of life. Because most adults have immunity to pneumococcus, a mother will passively transfer antibodies from her own blood to the blood of her baby before the baby is born. The antibodies that the baby gets before birth usually last for a few months. However, as these maternal antibody levels diminish, the baby becomes vulnerable. Most children who first come in contact with pneumococcus don’t have a problem. But every year tens of thousands of children suffer severe, often debilitating, and occasionally fatal infections with pneumococcus most of these children were previously healthy and well nourished.

How Often Do You Need To Get The Pneumonia Vaccines

Sometimes, vaccines require a booster shot. This means that an additional shot is given after the initial one to make sure that you dont lose immunity over time.

PCV13 never requires a booster shot in children or adults after all recommended doses are received.

Sometimes, PPSV23 requires a booster shot, depending on when and why it was given:

  • Children who get PPSV23 due to certain health conditions, like cancer and conditions that weaken the immune system, need a booster 5 years after the first dose.

  • Adults who get PPSV23 before age 65 should get one booster at least 5 years after the first dose, once theyve turned 65. No booster is needed if the first dose is given after age 65.

  • Adults with a weakened immune system and other specific conditions should have another dose 5 years after their first dose, and then one more dose at least 5 years after their most recent dose, once theyve turned 65.

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When Will Prevnar 20 Be Available

We dont know yet when Prevnar 20 will be available since a specific timeline hasnt been announced yet.

Healthcare providers reference the CDCs updated immunizations schedules complex diagrams that show when and how vaccines should be administered to help make sure appropriate vaccines are administered. Prevnar 20 is not yet incorporated into these schedules, so its difficult for healthcare providers to know who specifically should receive the vaccine at this time.

However, its likely that ACIP will recommend the vaccines use and add it to the immunization schedule after they meet in October 2021.

Everything You Need To Know About The Pneumonia Vaccine

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA

During the winter months, many people think that they have a nasty cold or flu, but it turns out to be pneumonia an illness that can be life threatening in certain people. A vaccine can help lower your chance of contracting pneumonia. While the pneumonia vaccine does not prevent all cases of pneumonia, it reduces the severity of the disease.

That is especially important for older adults and if you have certain medical conditions that put you at greater risk for complications.

Now is the time to talk to your doctor about your risks and if you need a vaccine to protect you against pneumonia.

Niharika Juwarkar, MD, Internal Medicine with Firelands Physician Group, answers your most frequently asked questions about pneumonia and the risks.

What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a respiratory lung infection that is often mistaken for the flu. Your lungs become filled with fluid or pus that results in inflammation. Symptoms are very similar to the flu, but pneumonia can last for weeks and result in very serious complications.

While pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, most cases are due to a specific bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae, more commonly known as pneumococcal pneumonia. This form can be treated with antibiotics. Your doctor can test to see what form of pneumonia you have. Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have and the severity of your symptoms. But, the best defense is vaccination.

Who is most at risk for pneumonia?

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Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces All

At the same time, in 2012, the Fiji government introduced a routine infant immunisation schedule for ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using three primary doses and no booster dose. Published in The Lancet Global Health, this second study looked at hospital admission rates for children with pneumonia at three Fiji public tertiary hospitals. Five years after the vaccine was introduced, hospital admissions for all-cause pneumonia had fallen for children aged 24-59 months. Mortality was down by 39 per cent among children aged two to 24 months who were admitted to hospitals with all-case pneumonia, bronchiolitis and asthma. The study showed the effect of PCV10 vaccine and supported its introduction for children in other low and middle-income countries in that region. These results provide supportive evidence of the probable benefits of PCV10 in reducing pneumonia in children in Fiji.

How Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Made

Like the Hib vaccine, the pneumococcal vaccine is made from the sugar coating of the bacteria. Antibodies directed against the pneumococcal polysaccharide protect the child without having to take the risk that their first encounter with natural pneumococcus will result in permanent disabilities or death.

Unfortunately, children less than 2 years old don’t develop very good immune responses to this polysaccharide alone. So the pneumococcal vaccine was made in a manner similar to the Hib vaccine . The pneumococcal polysaccharide is linked to a harmless protein. This version of the vaccine is referred to as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Once linked, young children are able to make an immune response to the polysaccharide. The big difference between the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine is the number of different types of polysaccharides that need to be included in the vaccine. Whereas, there is really only one strain of Hib that causes disease in children, there are about 90 different strains of pneumococcus. Fortunately, most of the serious disease in young children is caused by the 13 strains of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccine was found to be highly effective in preventing severe pneumococcal infection in a large trial of children injected with the vaccine. About 40,000 children were included in the initial trial of the vaccine. Since its licensure, the pneumococcal vaccine has been given to millions of children safely.

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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

1. What

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

2. Who

Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

3. How

4. Why

How Does It Compare To Other Pneumococcal Vaccines

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Like Prevnar 20, Prevnar 13 is a conjugate vaccine that works in a similar way to protect you against pneumococcal disease. Pneumovax 23, on the other hand, is a polyvalent vaccine that works by producing antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

No vaccine is 100% effective at preventing disease, but all three pneumococcal vaccines Prevnar 13, Prevnar 20, and Pneumovax 23 are considered safe and effective for helping protect against pneumococcal disease. And this latest FDA approval demonstrates ongoing pneumococcal vaccine development, with more candidates currently in the pipeline.

Lets review some key differences between the vaccines.

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What Are The Side Effects

Prior to its approval, Prevnar 20 was studied in six clinical trials. Across these studies, reported side effects were similar for all ages. Most of them were mild to moderate in severity. Like many other vaccines, pain at the injection site is reported as the most common side effect.

Additional common side effects of Prevnar 20 can include:

  • Muscle pain

  • Joint pain

  • Injection site swelling

Although most of these side effects happened within 7 to 10 days of the shot, less than 2% of people experienced one or more serious adverse events within 6 months. However, it hasnt been confirmed that these events were due to the vaccine.

The safety of Prevnar 20 was studied in people who have no history of pneumococcal vaccination, in individuals who have previously received Prevnar 13, and in individuals who have previously received Pneumovax 23. No notable safety differences were seen between the vaccines.

Next, well discuss who should receive Prevnar 20.

What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.

How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.

Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.

Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.

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What Are The Pneumonia Vaccines

There are two FDA-approved vaccines that protect against pneumonia:

  • 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or PCV13

  • 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or PPSV23

These immunizations are called pneumonia vaccines because they prevent pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. They are also known as pneumococcal vaccines because they protect against a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Although there are many viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is the most common cause. Pneumococcus can also cause infections in other parts of the body.

Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines

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CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.

Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.

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Things To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

The pneumococcal vaccine is important for people 65 and older HealthPartners geriatric medicine specialist Dr. von Sternberg explains why.

Theres been a lot of talk lately about vaccines, their safety and whether they really work. One vaccine I always recommend for my older patients is the pneumococcal vaccine. I recently got mine and feel much safer as a result.

Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

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