General Characteristics Of The Study Population
demonstrates the demographic and baseline characteristics of both cohorts . FluVac+ patients were significantly older than those who were not vaccinated within the season and off season. Corresponding to the higher age and the existing recommendations for influenza vaccination, FluVac+ patients were more likely to have comorbid illnesses, such as congestive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, neoplastic disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, and were more frequently users of long-term oxygen therapy. These patients had a higher BMI, were less likely to be smokers and were more frequently vaccinated against pneumococci. No differences were found with respect to the occurrence of previous antibiotic treatment or nursing home residence status. Approximately 63.3% of patients in the season cohort and 65.1% in the off-season cohort were hospitalised for their CAP episode. The hospitalisation rate of FluVac+ patients was comparable to the unvaccinated patients for the season and off-season cohort . The remaining patients were treated on an outpatient basis by their physician.
When mortality was investigated as an outcome parameter in the season cohort by multivariate analyses , influenza vaccination revealed no decreased risks for mortality on day 14 or 30 after adjustment for potential confounders. However, with respect to the 6-month long-term follow-up, influenza vaccination was associated with lower mortality risk .
Influenza And Pneumococcal Immunization
Everyone plays a role in infection preventionpatients, families, and healthcare personnelin and out of healthcare facilities.
So do your part! Wherever you are, there is something you can do to stay safe from infections.
Two things that you can do for yourself and your loved ones are to receive an influenza vaccine annually and a pneumonia immunization at the appropriate time according to your age and health history. By doing so, you not only protect yourself, but you protect others who are vulnerable to severe illness or even death if they get one of these viruses.
Flu activity usually peaks in the U.S. in January or February. However, seasonal flu activity can begin as early as October and continue to occur as late as May. Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Some people, such as older people, young children, and people with certain health conditions, are at high risk for serious flu complications. Even healthy people can get sick enough to miss work or school for a significant amount of time or even be hospitalized. Learn the flu basics.
Vaccination Against Flu And Pneumonia During The Covid
Pneumonia and influenza are totally preventable respiratory infections. Nevertheless, thousands of cases are diagnosed every year. This year, in addition, there is another virus that causes respiratory symptoms: COVID-19. To reduce bed occupancy at hospitals and to keep as much of the workforce as active as possible, vaccinating against the flu is considered especially strategic this year.
Stock image from the Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. Photographer Francisco Avia
It is estimated that flu epidemics cause between three and five million cases of serious illness a year, and more than 200,000 deaths from respiratory infection across the world. Multiple studies have shown that vaccinating against influenza, the virus that causes flu, reduces the risk of developing a more serious case of the disease, as well as reducing hospitalisation and the number of admissions to intensive care units.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, between 7% and 11% of coinfections have been recorded in patients with COVID-19, in which the flu virus was one of the most frequent.
Elderly people, especially those who live in assisted living facilities, have been a very vulnerable population during the COVID-10 pandemic, mainly due to the rapid propagation of the virus, which is associated with a high number of deaths. Patients over 80 years who received mechanical ventilation had a mortality rate of 90%, which demonstrates the vulnerability of this population.
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Flu And Pneumonia Shots
Having the flu can be dangerous for anyone. But it is extra risky for people with diabetes or other chronic health problems. Having diabetes means having more instances of high blood sugar than a person without diabetes. High blood sugar hinders your white blood cells ability to fight infections.
Beyond people living with diabetes, flu is also extra risky for people with heart disease, smokers and those with chronic lung disease, people who have an impaired immune system , very young children, and people living in very close quarters, such as college dorms, military barracks, or nursing homes.
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Common And Local Adverse Events
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Studies of Pneu-C-13 vaccine indicated that irritability decreased appetite increased or decreased sleep and pain, swelling and redness at the injection site after the toddler dose and in older children, are common side effects. Low grade fever occurred in 20% to 30% or more of vaccine recipients. In adults over 50 years of age, the most commonly reported side effects included pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and new onset of myalgia, with fever above 38Â°C occurring in approximately 3% of vaccine recipients.
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Reactions to Pneu-P-23 vaccine are usually mild. Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site occur in 30% to 60% of vaccine recipients and more commonly follow SC administration than IM administration. Occasionally, low grade fever may occur. Re-immunization of healthy adults less than 2 years after the initial dose is associated with increased injection site and systemic reactions. Studies have suggested that re-vaccination after an interval of at least 4 years is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects. However, severe injection site reactions, including reports of injection site cellulitis and peripheral edema in the injected extremity, have been documented rarely with Pneu-P-23 vaccine in post-marketing surveillance, even with the first dose. Multiple re-vaccinations are not recommended refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.
How Does Influenza Disease Spread
- Flu is spread by:–An infected person’s droplets from cough, sneeze or talk enter the mouth, eye or nose–Touching a surface or object with flu virus on it and then touching mouth, eyes or nose.
- An infected person can infect others 1 day before symptoms start and up to 5 to 7 days after symptoms start.
- Some people, especially young children and people with weakened immune systems, might be able to infect others for an even longer time.
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Who Needs One Or Two Pneumonia Vaccines
There are two pneumococcal vaccines, each working in a different way to maximize protection. PPSV23 protects against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. Those 23 strains are about 90- to 95-plus percent of the strains that cause pneumonia in humans, Poland explains. PCV13, on the other hand, is a conjugate vaccine that protects against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. PCV13 induces immunologic memory, he says. Your body will remember that it has encountered an antigen 20 years from now and develop antibodies to fight it off.
In order to get the best protection against all strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia, the CDC has long recommended that everyone 65 or older receive both vaccines: PCV13 , followed by the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at a later visit. But the agency is now saying that PCV13 may not be necessary for healthy people 65 and older, suggesting that the decision be left up to patients and their physicians as to whether that extra skin prick is appropriate.
“Anyone who reaches the age of 65 and is in any way immunocompromised or has any of the listed indications for pneumococcal vaccine because they’re in a high-risk group for example, if they have diabetes, heart disease or lung disease, or are a smoker should continue to get both vaccines, says Schaffner.
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What To Know About Mild Side Effects
As with any vaccine, you may experience some mild side effects after receiving the pneumococcal vaccine.
Mild side effects vary depending on which vaccine you receive. The side effects will usually go away within a few days.
Possible side effects of the PCV13 vaccine include:
- redness or discoloration, pain, or swelling at the site of the shot
- sleepiness or drowsiness
- mild fever
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Everything You Need To Know About The Pneumonia Vaccine
During the winter months, many people think that they have a nasty cold or flu, but it turns out to be pneumonia an illness that can be life threatening in certain people. A vaccine can help lower your chance of contracting pneumonia. While the pneumonia vaccine does not prevent all cases of pneumonia, it reduces the severity of the disease.
That is especially important for older adults and if you have certain medical conditions that put you at greater risk for complications.
Now is the time to talk to your doctor about your risks and if you need a vaccine to protect you against pneumonia.
Niharika Juwarkar, MD, Internal Medicine with Firelands Physician Group, answers your most frequently asked questions about pneumonia and the risks.
What is pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a respiratory lung infection that is often mistaken for the flu. Your lungs become filled with fluid or pus that results in inflammation. Symptoms are very similar to the flu, but pneumonia can last for weeks and result in very serious complications.
While pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, most cases are due to a specific bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae, more commonly known as pneumococcal pneumonia. This form can be treated with antibiotics. Your doctor can test to see what form of pneumonia you have. Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have and the severity of your symptoms. But, the best defense is vaccination.
Who is most at risk for pneumonia?
What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccines
PCV13 and PPSV23 can both cause mild side effects. Both pneumococcal vaccines are given in the arm and are injected into muscle. Children and adults may experience arm soreness, swelling, or redness where the shot was injected. Other side effects that may occur in adults include:
PCV13 should not be given to children at the same time as the annual flu shot, because of an increased risk of . These seizures are caused by a high fever and occur in up to 5% of children under 5. They can be scary, but dont cause any long-term health problems.
The good news is that the side effects will resolve on their own within a few days.
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Flu Pneumonia Vaccinations Tied To Lower Risk Of Alzheimer’s Dementia
CHICAGO, JULY 27, 2020 Flu and pneumonia vaccinations are associated with reduced risk of Alzheimerâs disease, according to new research reported at the Alzheimerâs Association International Conference® 2020.
Three research studies reported at AAIC 2020 suggest:
- At least one flu vaccination was associated with a 17% reduction in Alzheimerâs incidence. More frequent flu vaccination was associated with another 13% reduction in Alzheimerâs incidence.
- Vaccination against pneumonia between ages 65 and 75 reduced Alzheimerâs risk by up to 40% depending on individual genes.
- Individuals with dementia have a higher risk of dying after infections than those without dementia .
âWith the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines are at the forefront of public health discussions. It is important to explore their benefit in not only protecting against viral or bacterial infection but also improving long-term health outcomes,â said Maria C. Carrillo, Ph.D., Alzheimerâs Association chief science officer.
âIt may turn out to be as simple as if youâre taking care of your health in this way â getting vaccinated â youâre also taking care of yourself in other ways, and these things add up to lower risk of Alzheimerâs and other dementias,â Carrillo said. âThis research, while early, calls for further studies in large, diverse clinical trials to inform whether vaccinations as a public health strategy decrease our risk for developing dementia as we age.â
Route Site And Needle Size
Administer pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Administer pneumococcal conjugate vaccine intramuscularly. The preferred site for infants and young children is the vastus lateralis muscle in the anterolateral thigh. The preferred injection site in older children and adults is the deltoid muscle. Use a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
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How Often Do You Need To Get The Pneumonia Vaccines
Sometimes, vaccines require a booster shot. This means that an additional shot is given after the initial one to make sure that you dont lose immunity over time.
PCV13 never requires a booster shot in children or adults after all recommended doses are received.
Sometimes, PPSV23 requires a booster shot, depending on when and why it was given:
Children who get PPSV23 due to certain health conditions, like cancer and conditions that weaken the immune system, need a booster 5 years after the first dose.
Adults who get PPSV23 before age 65 should get one booster at least 5 years after the first dose, once theyve turned 65. No booster is needed if the first dose is given after age 65.
Adults with a weakened immune system and other specific conditions should have another dose 5 years after their first dose, and then one more dose at least 5 years after their most recent dose, once theyve turned 65.
Is It Flu Or Pneumonia
The symptoms of pneumonia are similar to the flu. But with pneumonia, your cough is usually worse and you may have trouble breathing. For example, you may get winded going up just a few stairs, when you normally walk up two flights without a problem, says Dr. Thorner.
However, the symptoms can be subtler in the very young and the elderlythe two groups most vulnerable to pneumonia. Babies and young children with the infection may be restless, fussy, and breathe too fast. Older people with pneumonia sometimes dont have a fever or a cough, but they may be confused or complain of pain when taking a deep breath.
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When Should You Schedule Your Vaccines
Older adults should get their flu shots by the end of October or ideally even sooner, particularly in light of the expected increase in demand for the 202021 winter season caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
In fact, given the concerns surrounding the pandemic, older adults should make sure they are up to date on all their vaccinations and any booster shots by the end of October, before winter sets in, Privor-Dumm says.
Still, its important to stagger your vaccinations, as getting them all done at one time could lead to complications. Talk to your doctor about setting up a vaccination schedule that works for you.
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What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine
The pneumonia vaccine is an injection that prevents you from contracting pneumococcal disease. There are two pneumococcal vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States:
The Center for Disease Control recommends the PCV13 vaccine for:
- All children younger than 2 years old
- People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions
The CDC recommends PPSV23 for:
- All adults 65 years or older
- People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
- Smokers 19 through 64 years old
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