Saturday, October 1, 2022

How Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Made

What To Know About Mild Side Effects

Science Talk: Vaccine Made With Synthetic Gene Protects Against Deadly Pneumonia

As with any vaccine, you may experience some mild side effects after receiving the pneumococcal vaccine.

Mild side effects vary depending on which vaccine you receive. The side effects will usually go away within a few days.

Possible side effects of the PCV13 vaccine include:

  • redness or discoloration, pain, or swelling at the site of the shot
  • sleepiness or drowsiness
  • mild fever

On very rare occasions, serious side effects can occur, such as high fever, convulsions, or a skin rash. Contact your childs pediatrician right away if you notice any of these symptoms.

Indication For Pneumovax 23

PNEUMOVAX®23 is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by the 23 serotypes contained in the vaccine .

PNEUMOVAX 23 is approved for use in persons 50 years of age or older and persons aged 2 years who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.

PNEUMOVAX 23 will not prevent disease caused by capsular types of pneumococcus other than those contained in the vaccine.

Rabies Vaccine And Egg Allergies

Rabies is a dangerous virus transmitted through bites from infected animals. Once symptoms begin, the disease is almost always fatal.

There are various different vaccines on the market for rabies that can be administered after you’ve been exposed to the virus. However, most of the vaccines are cultured in chicken embryos and aren’t considered safe for people who have severe egg allergies.

Fortunately, there is one option for the egg-allergic: Imovax, which is not cultured in chick embryos.

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Are The Pneumonia Vaccines Safe

Yes, pneumonia vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, they go through rigorous scientific testing and review. Although both pneumococcal vaccines can cause mild side effects, severe reactions to the vaccines are rare. In one study of adults over age 70 who received the PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines, there was only one adverse event that was related to the vaccine.

Allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, but they can occur and may be serious. If you have had an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the pneumococcal vaccines or to a prior dose of a pneumococcal vaccine, you should not get vaccinated without talking to your healthcare provider first.

If you have questions about whether the pneumonia vaccines are safe for you, discuss this with your healthcare provider. You can also find information about pneumococcal vaccine safety here.

Are Vaccine Ingredients Toxic

Experimental COVID

Some vaccine ingredients can be toxic in large amounts. The same is true for all medications that we take. In fact, most things consumed in large amounts are toxic. The levels of additional ingredients in vaccines are tiny. Vaccines are proven to be nontoxic through thorough safety testing before the CDC and FDA approve them.

  • Yeast proteins left over from the manufacturing process

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Who Else Can Take The Vaccine

The vaccine has been found to be safe and effective in people with various conditions that are associated with increased risk of severe disease.

This includes hypertension, diabetes, asthma, pulmonary, liver or kidney disease, as well as chronic infections that are stable and controlled.

Further studies are required for the impacts on immune-compromised persons. The interim recommendation is that immune-compromised persons who are part of a group recommended for vaccination may be vaccinated, though when possible, not before receiving information and counselling.

Persons living with HIV are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease. Limited safety data exists on HIV-infected persons with well controlled disease from the clinical trials. Known HIV-positive vaccine recipients should be informed, and when possible, counselled in relation to the available data.

Vaccination can be offered to people who have had COVID-19 in the past. But given the limited vaccine supply, individuals may wish to defer their own COVID-19 vaccination for up to 6 months from the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Spreading Pneumonia To Others

If your pneumonia is caused by a virus or bacteria, you may spread the infection to other people while you are contagious. How long you are contagious depends on what is causing the pneumonia and whether you get treatment. You may be contagious for several days to a week.

If you get antibiotics, you usually cannot spread the infection to others after a day of treatment.

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Where Can I Find These Vaccines

Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.

PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:

  • Pediatric and family practice offices
  • Community health clinics

If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:

  • Pharmacies
  • Health departments
  • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.

When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

In The Olden Days And By Olden I Mean

Ask UNMC Flu Vaccine and the Pneumonia Vaccine

last year, vaccinating patients against pneumonia was simplewe gave everyone one shot at age 65 and that was it, but new recommendations have created a lot of confusion. Lets remedy that and rock your world at the same time.

First of all, there is no such thing as a pneumonia vaccine. The vaccines which prevent pneumonia are directed against a single bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Because bad actors often get nicknames, like Billy the Kid or Bugsy Siegel, this bacteria is also called strep pneumo or pneumococcus. The name sure sounds like pneumonia, but pneumococcus also causes meningitis, sepsis , ear infections, and less often infections in the heart, joints, bones, and internal organs. There are more than 90 different strains of pneumococcus, although most disease is caused by about two dozen of them. Having immunity against one strain does not protect you against the others.

Pneumococcus lives in the nose of infants and young children. If you put a cotton swab up the nose of a healthy 1 year old, about 50% of the time youll find pneumococcus in there. Various strains of the pneumococcus bacteria take turns living in a kids nose. Sometimes, when a child acquires a new strain, he or she develops an ear infection a few weeks later. One strain might live in there for six months only to be replaced by another. In adults, the rate of colonization is lower, but you can still find pneumococcus living in about 3 percent of healthy adult noses as well.

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Who Is At Risk

Invasive pneumococcal disease can affect all people. However, infants and children younger than 5 years of age, and people 65 years of age and older are at higher risk.6

Other factors that increase adults risk of contracting pneumococcal disease include:7

  • Chronic lung disease
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Immune system problem
  • Other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or diabetes mellitus

Other risk factors for infants and children include:

  • Prematurity/low birth weight8

Select Safety Information For Pneumovax 23

Do not administer PNEUMOVAX®23 to individuals with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of the vaccine.

Defer vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 in persons with moderate or severe acute illness.

Use caution and appropriate care in administering PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with severely compromised cardiovascular and/or pulmonary function in whom a systemic reaction would pose a significant risk.

Available human data from clinical trials of PNEUMOVAX 23 in pregnancy have not established the presence or absence of a vaccine-associated risk.

Since elderly individuals may not tolerate medical interventions as well as younger individuals, a higher frequency and/or a greater severity of reactions in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Persons who are immunocompromised, including persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished immune response to PNEUMOVAX 23.

PNEUMOVAX 23 may not be effective in preventing pneumococcal meningitis in patients who have chronic cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting from congenital lesions, skull fractures, or neurosurgical procedures.

For subjects aged 65 years or older in a clinical study, systemic adverse reactions which were determined by the investigator to be vaccine-related were higher following revaccination than following initial vaccination.

Vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 may not offer 100% protection from pneumococcal infection.

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How Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work

Like all vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines work by showing the immune system a version of the microbe, or a part of it, that is responsible for the infection. The pneumococcal vaccine contains part of the pneumococcus bacterias outer shell, made of molecules called polysaccharides. The immune system learns to recognize it, attack it, and defend the body against it, should it ever come into contact with the real bacteria.

The body does this by making antibodies against the shell of the pneumococcus bacteria. These antibodies stay in your bloodstream as part of your immune system. If you are exposed to pneumococci in the future, the antibodies recognize the bacterias shell and launch a targeted defense.

There are strains of pneumococcus, so the vaccines are made up of molecules from many of those strains.

The Body’s Natural Response

Can the Pneumonia Shot Protect Me From Getting COVID

A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, parasite or fungus that can cause disease within the body. Each pathogen is made up of several subparts, usually unique to that specific pathogen and the disease it causes. The subpart of a pathogen that causes the formation of antibodies is called an antigen. The antibodies produced in response to the pathogens antigen are an important part of the immune system. You can consider antibodies as the soldiers in your bodys defense system. Each antibody, or soldier, in our system is trained to recognize one specific antigen. We have thousands of different antibodies in our bodies. When the human body is exposed to an antigen for the first time, it takes time for the immune system to respond and produce antibodies specific to that antigen.

In the meantime, the person is susceptible to becoming ill.

This means that if the person is exposed to the dangerous pathogen in the future, their immune system will be able to respond immediately, protecting against disease.

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Vaccines For Children Program

The Vaccines for Children Program provides vaccines to children whose parents or guardians may not be able to afford them. A child is eligible if they are younger than 19 years old and meets one of the following requirements:

  • Medicaid-eligible
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Underinsured

If your child is VFC-eligible, ask if your doctor is a VFC provider. For help in finding a VFC provider near you, contact your state or local health departments VFC Program Coordinator or call CDC at 1-800-CDC-INFO .

New Simpler Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations For 2022

Sandra Adamson Fryhofer, MD

This transcript has been edited for clarity.

Welcome to Medicine Matters. The topic is the new Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices pneumococcal vaccination recommendation for 2022.

Here’s why it matters. The risk for pneumococcal disease rises with age, with the highest risk among those aged 65 or older and younger adults with chronic medical or immunocompromised conditions. These groups carry more than 90% of the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults.

Invasive pneumococcal disease includes meningitis, bacteremia, and bacteremic pneumonia. In 2019, an estimated 30,000 cases of IPD resulted in 3000 deaths. Nonbacteremic pneumonia is classified as noninvasive disease. In 2017, more than 100,000 adults aged 19 or older were hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia.

The previous pneumococcal vaccine recommendation was complicated and confusing. The new recommendations are much more straightforward, with only two options to choose from:

  • A two-vaccine sequence of PCV15 , followed by PPSV23, a polysaccharide vaccine , or

  • A single dose of the new PCV20 vaccine .

If you choose the dual vaccine option, give PCV15 first. But no matter the order, the recommended interval between PCV15 and PPSV23 is at least 1 year. However, for those with immunocompromising conditions, cochlear implants, or cerebrospinal fluid leaks, a minimum of 8 weeks can be considered.

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Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
  • Feel dizzy
  • Have vision changes
  • Have ringing in the ears
  • Some people get severe pain in the shoulder and have difficulty moving the arm where the doctor gave the shot. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million shots. These types of reactions would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.
  • Available Vaccines And Vaccination Campaigns

    Global launch of pneumococcal vaccines

    A pneumococcal vaccine that protected against 14 strains was licensed in 1977, and expanded to protect against 23 strains in 1983. This vaccine is a polysaccharide vaccine called PPSV23 . However, it is most effective in adults, and does not consistently generate immunity in children younger than two years old. A separate vaccine for children called PCV7 was licensed in 2000. PCV7 is a conjugate vaccine it was expanded to include protection against 13 strains in 2010, and renamed PCV13 . PCV13 protects against the bacterial strains responsible for the most severe childhood pneumococcal infections.

    PCV7 was added to the recommended childhood vaccination schedule in 2000 . Since the initial recommendation, invasive pneumococcal disease in children has dropped by nearly 80% in the United States.

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    Types And Composition Of Pneumococcal Vaccines

    The FDA licensed 1 conjugate and 1 polysaccharide vaccine for protection against pneumococcal disease.

    Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine includes purified capsular polysaccharide of 13 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugated to a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin known as CRM197. A 0.5-milliliter PCV13 dose contains approximately 2.2 micrograms of polysaccharide from each of 12 serotypes and approximately 4.4 µg of polysaccharide from serotype 6B the total concentration of CRM197 is approximately 34 g. The vaccine contains 0.02% polysorbate 80, 0.125 milligrams of aluminum as aluminum phosphate adjuvant, and 5 mL of succinate buffer. The vaccine does not contain thimerosal preservative.

    Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

    Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine includes purified preparations of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. PPSV23 contains polysaccharide antigen from 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. It contains 25 µg of each antigen per dose and contains 0.25% phenol as a preservative.

    • Conjugate: A type of vaccine that joins a protein to an antigen in order to improve the protection the vaccine provides
    • Polysaccharide: A type of vaccine that is composed of long chains of sugar molecules that resemble the surface of certain types of bacteria in order to help the immune system mount a response

    Pneumococcal Infections After Influenza

    Pneumococcus is known as an opportunistic infection because it lives in the respiratory tract of people without causing disease, but when the respiratory tract is compromised by an infection such as influenza, the bacteria then invades the lungs , bloodstream , or brain and spinal cord . Activities like smoking can also disrupt the lining of the nose and throat and allow for pneumococcal infections and subsequent disease.

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    Timeline Of Human Vaccines

    This is a timeline of the development of prophylactic human vaccines. Early vaccines may be listed by the first year of development or testing, but later entries usually show the year the vaccine finished trials and became available on the market. Although vaccines exist for the diseases listed below, only smallpox has been eliminated worldwide. The other vaccine-preventable illnesses continue to cause millions of deaths each year. Currently, polio and measles are the targets of active worldwide eradication campaigns.

    Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

    NEW SINGLE DOSE VIALS FOR EARLY LIFE CALF PNEUMONIA VACCINE ...

    People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

    Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

    Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

    A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

    Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

    There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

    The two types are:

    • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
    • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

    According to the

    • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
    • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
    • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

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