Monday, October 3, 2022

How Long Is Pneumonia Vaccine Effective

Two Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA

There are two different types of pneumococcal vaccine:

More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, though only between eight and 10 of them cause the most serious infections.

The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

The pneumococcal vaccine is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.

Pneumococcal Vaccine Development: A Historical Perspective

S. pneumoniae was first discovered in the late 19th century by U.S. Army physician George Sternberg and French scientist Louis Pasteur, when it was recognized as a major pathogenic cause of bacterial pneumonia . In 1902, German scientist Friedrich Neufeld discovered that antiserum containing different types of S. pneumoniaspecific antibodies caused a type-specific capsular swelling, or Quellung reaction, which allowed identification of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. Polysaccharides that were identified coursing along the exterior of the bacterium could be targeted for vaccine development. British physician Sir Almroth Wright conducted the first large clinical trial of a whole-cell pneumococcal vaccine. This trial was largely unsuccessful, bringing vaccine development to a relative halt for the next three decades .

What Does This Mean

The announcement means that there hopefully will be fewer cases of pneumonia since adults can be effectively protected from it.

Pneumococcal pneumonia is a significant cause of illness and death in adults around the world, and the potential to reduce the burden of this disease through direct vaccination of adults represents a meaningful public health benefit, Dr. Emilio A. Emini, Pfizers senior vice president of vaccine research and development, said. Pfizer looks forward to sharing the CAPiTA data with U.S. and worldwide regulatory authorities and vaccine technical committees, to help inform decisions regarding potential Prevnar 13 label and recommendation updates.

Information on the study will be presented on March 12 at the 9th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases in Hyderabad, India.

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Everything You Need To Know About The Pneumonia Vaccine

During the winter months, many people think that they have a nasty cold or flu, but it turns out to be pneumonia an illness that can be life threatening in certain people. A vaccine can help lower your chance of contracting pneumonia. While the pneumonia vaccine does not prevent all cases of pneumonia, it reduces the severity of the disease.

That is especially important for older adults and if you have certain medical conditions that put you at greater risk for complications.

Now is the time to talk to your doctor about your risks and if you need a vaccine to protect you against pneumonia.

Niharika Juwarkar, MD, Internal Medicine with Firelands Physician Group, answers your most frequently asked questions about pneumonia and the risks.

What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a respiratory lung infection that is often mistaken for the flu. Your lungs become filled with fluid or pus that results in inflammation. Symptoms are very similar to the flu, but pneumonia can last for weeks and result in very serious complications.

While pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, most cases are due to a specific bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae, more commonly known as pneumococcal pneumonia. This form can be treated with antibiotics. Your doctor can test to see what form of pneumonia you have. Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have and the severity of your symptoms. But, the best defense is vaccination.

Who is most at risk for pneumonia?

Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine

Pneumonia Vaccine Side Effects: In Babies, Adults, and More

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine also known as Prevenar 13 offers protection against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to young children as part of their routine NHS vaccinations. Its also available for adults under 65 through our vaccination service.

The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine also known as Pneumovax 23 offers protection against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to adults over 65 and anyone with a very high risk of pneumonia.

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Vaccine Effective In Older Adults

The main goal of the study was to see how well Prevnar 13 works against a first episode of vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia . It also was effective against a first episode of non-bacteremic/non-invasive vaccine-type CAP, or VT-CAP, and a first episode of vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease . The study is the largest double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a vaccine ever conducted in adults.

We are pleased with the outcome of the CAPiTA study, which demonstrated that Prevnar 13 can prevent vaccine-type pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in adults, Dr. William Gruber, Pfizers senior vice president of vaccine clinical research, said in a press release.

Who Should Not Get These Vaccines

Because of age or health conditions, some people should not get certain vaccines or should wait before getting them. Read the guidelines below specific to pneumococcal vaccines and ask your or your childs doctor for more information.

Children younger than 2 years old should not get PPSV23. In addition, tell the person who is giving you or your child a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine if:

You or your child have had a life-threatening allergic reaction or have a severe allergy.

  • Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any of the following should not get PCV13:
  • A shot of this vaccine
  • An earlier pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7
  • Any vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid
  • Anyone who has had a life-threatening allergic reaction to PPSV23 should not get another shot.
  • Anyone with a severe allergy to any part of either of these vaccines should not get that vaccine. Your or your childs doctor can tell you about the vaccines ingredients.
  • You or your child are not feeling well.

    • People who have a mild illness, such as a cold, can probably get vaccinated. People who have a more serious illness should probably wait until they recover. Your or your childs doctor can advise you.

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    How Often Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Given

    Babies receive the pneumococcal vaccine as three separate injections, at 2 months, 4 months and 12-13 months.

    People over-65 only need a single pneumococcal vaccination which will protect for life. It is not given annually like the flu jab.

    People with a long term health condition may need just a single one-off pneumococcal vaccination or five-yearly vaccination depending on their underlying health problem.

    Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work

    There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults

    The pneumococcal vaccines are very effective at preventing pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in both adults and children. In one large study of over 84,000 adults aged 65 and older, those who received PCV13 were less likely to get pneumococcal pneumonia than were those who received a placebo shot. The vaccine protected about 45% of vaccinated people from getting pneumonia and about 75% from getting an invasive pneumococcal disease. Invasive pneumococcal disease is the most serious type and can be life-threatening.

    PPSV23 is also effective and protects at least 50% of vaccinated, healthy adults from invasive pneumococcal infections.

    In children, PCV13 has decreased the amount of invasive pneumococcal disease. According to the CDC, PCV13 prevented about 30,000 cases of invasive disease in the first 3 years it was available.

    Getting the vaccine not only protects you from getting pneumonia and other types of pneumococcal disease, but also protects vulnerable people around you who cant get vaccinated.

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    How Often Do I Need To Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

    The pneumonia vaccine also known as the pneumococcal vaccine offers protection against several strains of bacteria that can cause pneumonia. There are two types of the vaccine, one of which is specifically designed for adults over the age of 65 and anyone particularly high-risk because of a long-term health condition. The other vaccine Prevnar 13 is available in our stores for adults aged 18 and over.*

    Most adults getting the pneumonia vaccine will only need to get it once. Others who are high risk may need to get booster jabs every few years.

    If youve never had the pneumonia vaccine, and you think you could benefit, you should check to see if youre eligible for it on the NHS. If not, you can book yours with us and have it in your local LloydsPharmacy.

    How Long Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Last

    For most adults, one dose of the pneumonia vaccine should last a lifetime. In other words, you wont usually need to get another dose. This makes it different to the flu vaccine, which is given every year.

    For some people, boosters of the pneumonia vaccine will be needed. This will be the case for people who have underlying health conditions that make them high-risk for pneumonia and related conditions. Your doctor will let you know if you need another vaccine.

    If youre somebody who needs top-ups of the pneumonia vaccine, youll be able to receive them for free on the NHS.

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    What About The Pneumonia Vaccine

    Prevnar 13 is a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

    Pneumovax 23 is a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

    Once vaccinated, most healthy adults develop protection to most or all of these types within two to three weeks.

    What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccine

    Pneumonia vaccine: Jab could protect against more types of bacterial ...

    Most people don’t usually have serious side effects from either vaccine, but it’s possible to have some mild symptoms.

    The most common side effects with PCV13 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Swelling where the shot was given.
    • Pain or tenderness where the shot was given.
    • Fever.

    The most common side effects with PPSV23 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Pain where the shot was given.
    • Fever.
    • Muscle aches.

    If you do happen to have side effects, CDC says they’ll usually go away within two days.

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    What Are The Pneumonia Vaccines

    There are two FDA-approved vaccines that protect against pneumonia:

    • 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or PCV13

    • 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or PPSV23

    These immunizations are called pneumonia vaccines because they prevent pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. They are also known as pneumococcal vaccines because they protect against a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Although there are many viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is the most common cause. Pneumococcus can also cause infections in other parts of the body.

    What Is The Pneumonia Shot

    The pneumonia shot is a vaccine that keeps you from getting pneumonia. There are two types of vaccines. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is primarily for children under age two, though it can be given to older ages, as well. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is for adults over age 65.

    The pneumonia vaccine for older adults is one dose. Unlike the flu vaccine, you dont get it every year.

    The vaccine teaches your body to make proteins that will destroy the pneumonia bacteria. These proteins are called antibodies and they will protect you and keep you from getting infected. The pneumonia vaccines dont have live bacteria or viruses in them, so you wont get pneumonia from the vaccine.

    Continued

    You should have the pneumonia vaccine if you:

    • Are over age 65
    • Have a long-term health problem
    • Asthma
  • Have a weak immune system
  • Smoke
  • Vaccines dont prevent all pneumonia, but people who get the shot dont get as sick as those who dont have it. Benefits of the vaccine include:

    • Milder infections
    • Ringing in your ears
    • Sweating

    If you know you dont like needles or feel worried before getting a vaccine, you can try to look away while you have the shot. You can also try a relaxation technique like deep breathing or visualization to help you feel calm.

    Older people are more likely to have long-term health problems that can make getting an infection dangerous. The pneumonia shot is recommended for most people.

    Continued

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    Epidemiology And Risk Factors

    Although invasive pneumococcal disease is much less prevalent than noninvasive disease, it confers significant mortality risk , and survivors can be left with significant sequelae . Furthermore, given the widespread use of empiric antibiotics and frequent lack of timely culture or urinary antigen data, the true burden of primary and invasive pneumococcal disease may be significantly underestimated .

    Certain groups are at particularly high risk for invasive pneumococcal disease: young children, the elderly, and those with high-risk comorbid diseases or substance habits. The Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Active Bacterial Core Surveillance data from 2013 demonstrated increased rates of invasive pneumococcal disease in children younger than age 5 years and in adults 65 years or older .

    Independent of age, the presence of other comorbid chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , asthma, renal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus increases the risk for invasive pneumococcal disease . Patients with common pulmonary conditions like COPD and asthma have a two- to sixfold risk for invasive pneumococcal disease compared with the general population . In addition, active smoking confers increased risk, as do alcohol and intravenous drug use .

    Persons New To Canada

    How long should you wait to get the COVID-19 vaccine after getting a pneumonia shot?

    Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.

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    Are There Side Effects

    Some people have side effects from the vaccine, but these are usually minor and last only a short time. It is quite common to have some swelling and soreness in the arm where the needle was given. Occasionally slight fever may occur. Other side effects such as headache, a higher fever or fatigue may occur, but these are rare. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your doctor.

    When Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Given

    The pneumonia vaccine is not the same as the flu vaccine, as it doesnt need to be given at a certain time of year. Rather, it can be given at any time, as long as its safe for you to have it.

    However, if youre in a high-risk group for pneumonia, you should get the vaccine as soon as possible to make sure youre protected.

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    What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine

    The pneumonia vaccine is an injection that prevents you from contracting pneumococcal disease. There are two pneumococcal vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States:

  • PCV13 Prevnar 13®: This vaccine helps protect against the 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria that most commonly cause serious infections in children and adults. Doctors give this vaccine to children at 12 through 15 months, 2, 4, and 6 years old. Adults who need this vaccine get just one shot.
  • PPSV23 Pneumovax23®: This vaccine helps protect against serious infections caused by 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. Doctors give a single shot of this vaccine to people who need it, but the CDC recommends one or two additional shots for people with certain chronic medical conditions.
  • The Center for Disease Control recommends the PCV13 vaccine for:

    • All children younger than 2 years old
    • People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions

    The CDC recommends PPSV23 for:

    • All adults 65 years or older
    • People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
    • Smokers 19 through 64 years old

    Immunologic Basis And Host Response To Pneumococcal Vaccines

    Pneumonia Vaccine May Not Be Necessary for Older Adults

    S. pneumoniae is a complex bacterium with 92 different polysaccharide capsular serotypes identified to date . The human airway uses numerous mechanisms to protect from colonization and invasive pneumococcal infection. Innate immune defenses, such as mucociliary escalator and an array of pattern recognition receptors that recognize bacterial proteins, help with the initial protection against the bacteria . The antiphagocytic bacterial capsule is considered to be the most important determinant of pneumococcal virulence and is important for colonization of the nasopharynx . Pneumococcal cell wall fragments and capsular polysaccharides are recognized by antibodies that bind and activate the complement system . All pneumococci serotypes can establish a carrier state and colonize in the human nasopharynx during the first few months of life. Children are the main reservoir, with colonization rates of up to 50%.

    Pneumococcus bacteria and virulence factors including capsular polysaccharide. Immune response to polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. MHC=major histocompatibility complex TCR=T cell receptor. Adapted by permission from Reference .

    Polysaccharide-based vaccines have been shown to result in decreased memory B-cell frequency, whereas conjugate protein-based vaccines increase serotype-specific memory B-cell responses, highlighting that these vaccines induce important T-celldependent memory responses .

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    Blood Clots And The Vaccine

    There have recently been reports of a very rare condition involving blood clots after vaccination. While this condition remains extremely rare, there appears to be a higher risk in people shortly after the first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Around 4 people develop this condition for every million doses given. Its seen as slightly more in younger people and tends to occur between 4 days and 2 weeks following vaccination.

    The benefits of vaccination continue to outweigh any risks and you should still get your vaccine when invited to do so. All approved vaccines are very effective and will save lives.

    If you have already had your first dose of the AZ vaccine and havent had any serious side effects, you should complete the course and come forward for your second dose, which will still be the AZ vaccine. Its important to have both doses to give you the best protection from COVID-19.

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