Monday, October 3, 2022

How Many Types Of Pneumonia Vaccines Are There

Why Is Classification Important For The Treatment

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA

Community-acquired pneumonia is usually caused by pneumococci, whereas nocosomial pneumonia is often connected with staphylococci, various intestinal , and special germs such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of those bacteria can be multi-resistant, meaning they are resistant to several . That is why different antibiotics are usually need than for treating community-acquired pneumonia.

Are You 65 Or Older Get Two Vaccinations Against Pneumonia

  • By Gregory Curfman, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Former Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Health Publishing

ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

If you or a loved one is age 65 or older, getting vaccinated against pneumonia is a good idea so good that the Centers for Disease Control now recommends that everyone in this age group get vaccinated against pneumonia twice.

This new recommendation is based on findings from a large clinical trial called CAPiTA, which were published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes just called pneumococcus, is a common bacterium that can cause serious lung infections like pneumonia. It can also cause invasive infections of the bloodstream, the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord , and other organs and tissues. Older individuals are especially prone to being infected by Pneumococcus, and these infections are often deadly.

The dark spots are pneumonia-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria isolated from the blood of an infected person.

One caveat is that while PCV13 is effective in preventing pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, it does not prevent pneumonia caused by viruses or other bacteria.

Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

PCV13
helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
  • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
  • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
  • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
  • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
  • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
  • another version of the shot called PCV7
  • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
  • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
  • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
  • are very sick

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Pneumonia Can Be Caused By Bacterial Viral Or Fungal Infections

Pneumonia is a type of lung infection that causes the air sacs in the lungs to fill with liquid.

There are different types of pneumonia. In most cases, pneumonia is caused by a bacterial or viral infection. In rarer cases, pneumonia can be caused by inhaling fluid into the lungs, or from a fungal infection.

However, healthcare providers arent always able to identify a cause for pneumonia: one study found that in up to 62% of pneumonia cases no pathogen like a virus, bacteria, or fungus is identified.

When people discuss types of pneumonia, they also consider how severe the infection is. For example, walking pneumonia is a nonmedical term thats used to refer to a mild case of pneumonia, where the patient can still be up and walking around. People also distinguish pneumonia cases by where they were picked up: for example, hospital-acquired pneumonia or community-acquired pneumonia.

Are The Pneumonia Vaccines Safe

Pneumonia vaccine: How often and when to seek help

Yes, pneumonia vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, they go through rigorous scientific testing and review. Although both pneumococcal vaccines can cause mild side effects, severe reactions to the vaccines are rare. In one study of adults over age 70 who received the PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines, there was only one adverse event that was related to the vaccine.

Allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, but they can occur and may be serious. If you have had an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the pneumococcal vaccines or to a prior dose of a pneumococcal vaccine, you should not get vaccinated without talking to your healthcare provider first.

If you have questions about whether the pneumonia vaccines are safe for you, discuss this with your healthcare provider. You can also find information about pneumococcal vaccine safety here.

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Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

Discussion And Future Directions

Over the past 100 years, substantial progress has been made in the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease. Current recommendations reflect a series of changes made over a relatively short span of time, on the basis of growing data and experience with both polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines in multiple different populations. With so many nearly simultaneous changes in vaccine strategy, it remains a challenge to appropriately attribute the source of greatest effect. It is clear that prior PCV7 vaccination strategies in children over the past 2 decades yielded substantial indirect impacts on the prevalence of adult vaccine-type pneumococcal disease, and therefore the switchover to preferential use of PCV13 in the pediatric population may be expected to yield more of the same, although that remains to be proven.

At this point, we are still inferring future benefits from data presently available. The original impetus for use of PCV13 in the elderly population was the robust immunogenicity data in this population. This fact, in conjunction with clinical trial results in immunocompromised populations, was the foundation for the present substantial shift in adult immunization practice. Although this strategy appears to be well supported by the compelling results observed in CAPiTA, with 45% efficacy in prevention of community-acquired pneumonia and 75% efficacy in prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease, there are some caveats to consider.

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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines

Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.

Everything You Need To Know About The Pneumonia Vaccine

Streptococcus pneumoniae and flu vaccines | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

During the winter months, many people think that they have a nasty cold or flu, but it turns out to be pneumonia an illness that can be life threatening in certain people. A vaccine can help lower your chance of contracting pneumonia. While the pneumonia vaccine does not prevent all cases of pneumonia, it reduces the severity of the disease.

That is especially important for older adults and if you have certain medical conditions that put you at greater risk for complications.

Now is the time to talk to your doctor about your risks and if you need a vaccine to protect you against pneumonia.

Niharika Juwarkar, MD, Internal Medicine with Firelands Physician Group, answers your most frequently asked questions about pneumonia and the risks.

What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a respiratory lung infection that is often mistaken for the flu. Your lungs become filled with fluid or pus that results in inflammation. Symptoms are very similar to the flu, but pneumonia can last for weeks and result in very serious complications.

While pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, most cases are due to a specific bacteria called streptococcus pneumoniae, more commonly known as pneumococcal pneumonia. This form can be treated with antibiotics. Your doctor can test to see what form of pneumonia you have. Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have and the severity of your symptoms. But, the best defense is vaccination.

Who is most at risk for pneumonia?

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What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

After receiving the pneumococcal vaccine, children commonly will have pain or swelling where the shot is given and occasionally low-grade fever. About 1 of every 100 children will develop a high fever.

Side effects from the polysaccharide version used in adults include tenderness and redness at the injection site, and about 1 of every 100 people will get a fever and experience muscle aches.

Are Prevnar 13 And Pneumovax 23 The Same

Not quite. They both protect against pneumococcal bacteria. Prevnar 13 protects against 13 types of bacteria, and Pneumovax 23 protects against 23 types of bacteria. Prevnar 13 is given in the muscle , while Pneumovax 23 can be given either in the muscle or under the skin . Most adults over 65 will receive one dose of each vaccine, one year apart.

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How Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Made

Like the Hib vaccine, the pneumococcal vaccine is made from the sugar coating of the bacteria. Antibodies directed against the pneumococcal polysaccharide protect the child without having to take the risk that their first encounter with natural pneumococcus will result in permanent disabilities or death.

Unfortunately, children less than 2 years old don’t develop very good immune responses to this polysaccharide alone. So the pneumococcal vaccine was made in a manner similar to the Hib vaccine . The pneumococcal polysaccharide is linked to a harmless protein. This version of the vaccine is referred to as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Once linked, young children are able to make an immune response to the polysaccharide. The big difference between the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine is the number of different types of polysaccharides that need to be included in the vaccine. Whereas, there is really only one strain of Hib that causes disease in children, there are about 90 different strains of pneumococcus. Fortunately, most of the serious disease in young children is caused by the 13 strains of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccine was found to be highly effective in preventing severe pneumococcal infection in a large trial of children injected with the vaccine. About 40,000 children were included in the initial trial of the vaccine. Since its licensure, the pneumococcal vaccine has been given to millions of children safely.

The Pneumonia Vaccine Explained

Pneumonia shots: Coverage, costs, and eligibility

While pneumonia is usually mild, it can have deadly consequences for portions of the population, especially people over the age of 65. In fact, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that causes pneumococcal disease, is the No. 1 cause of pneumonia worldwide.

The vaccine indirectly protects adults by stopping children from spreading the bacteria

“But this bacteria doesn’t just cause pneumonia. It’s a nasty human pathogen that can invade the brain and bloodstream, leading to ear infections, sinus infections, even meningitis,” says Dr. Michael Ben-Aderet, associate medical director of Hospital Epidemiology at Cedars-Sinai.

“It can make people very sick, and it’s a key cause of death among the elderly.”

In 2017, an estimated 3,600 people died from invasive pneumococcal disease in the U.S. alone.

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How Do You Catch Pneumococcus

Pneumococcus is a bacterium that is commonly found lining the surface of the nose and the back of the throat in fact, about 25 of every 100 people are colonized with pneumococcus. Many children will come in contact with pneumococcus sometime in the first two years of life. Because most adults have immunity to pneumococcus, a mother will passively transfer antibodies from her own blood to the blood of her baby before the baby is born. The antibodies that the baby gets before birth usually last for a few months. However, as these maternal antibody levels diminish, the baby becomes vulnerable. Most children who first come in contact with pneumococcus don’t have a problem. But every year tens of thousands of children suffer severe, often debilitating, and occasionally fatal infections with pneumococcus most of these children were previously healthy and well nourished.

Coverage And Cost Comparison Of Prevnar 13 Vs Pneumovax 23

Insurance coverage varies on both Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23. If you or your child receive a dose in your healthcare providers office, it may be covered under your medical insurance. Most pharmacies now provide vaccination services, including pneumonia vaccines, to adults, so you can conveniently get your vaccine at your local drugstore . Medicare usually does not cover the cost of either vaccine.

Without insurance, a dose of Prevnar 13 costs about $240, and a dose of Pneumovax 23 costs about $135. You can get Prevnar 13 about $195 and Pneumovax 23 for $109 by using a SingleCare discount card or coupon.

The most common side effects associated with Pneumovax 23 are:

  • Injection-site pain, soreness, or tenderness
  • Injection-site swelling or induration
  • Headache
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Muscle pain

This is not a full list of side effectsother side effects may occur. Contact your healthcare provider for a full list of side effects that may occur with Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax 23.

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How Does It Compare To Other Pneumococcal Vaccines

Like Prevnar 20, Prevnar 13 is a conjugate vaccine that works in a similar way to protect you against pneumococcal disease. Pneumovax 23, on the other hand, is a polyvalent vaccine that works by producing antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

No vaccine is 100% effective at preventing disease, but all three pneumococcal vaccines Prevnar 13, Prevnar 20, and Pneumovax 23 are considered safe and effective for helping protect against pneumococcal disease. And this latest FDA approval demonstrates ongoing pneumococcal vaccine development, with more candidates currently in the pipeline.

Lets review some key differences between the vaccines.

Do I Need To Pay For Pneumococcal Immunisation

Pneumonia Can Be PreventedâVaccines Can Help Older Adults

Vaccines covered by the National Immunisation Program are free for people who are eligible. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or your family are eligible to receive.

Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can check this when you make your appointment.

If you are not eligible for free vaccine, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your immunisation provider can give you more information.

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Who Should Get Prevnar 13 And Pneumovax 23

Prevnar 13 was developed for infants and children. The CDC recommends that all infants and children younger than 2 years of age get Prevnar 13. Prevnar 13 involves a series of four doses of the vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and sometime between 12 and 15 months of age.

Pneumovax 23 is the vaccine used in adults. It does not work in infants and children under 2 years old.

Most adults do not need a pneumococcal vaccine until they reach the age of 65. Once a person turns 65 years old, the CDC recommends Pneumovax 23.

The same is true for any adult who smokes or has one or more of these chronic illnesses:

  • Chronic heart disease

  • Chronic lung disease, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Diabetes

  • Chronic liver disease

Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.

These include:

  • babies
  • adults aged 65 or over
  • children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition

Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.

People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.

If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.

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