Wednesday, September 28, 2022

How Often Do Adults Need Pneumonia Vaccine

Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

Confused About the Pneumococcal Vaccine Schedule? You’re Not Alone | The Morning Report
PCV13
helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
  • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
  • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
  • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
  • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
  • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
  • another version of the shot called PCV7
  • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
  • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
  • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
  • are very sick

How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.

They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.

More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.

The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

Do Children Need Protection Against Pneumococcal Disease

Yes. Infants and young children in the United States need to be protected against pneumococcal disease. In fact, they are routinely vaccinated for pneumococcal disease because it is part of the standard infant immunization schedule. Pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended for older children and adolescents with kidney disease, kidney failure, or an organ transplant, even if they received the vaccine as infants. If your child hasn’t been vaccinated, talk to your doctor.

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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines

Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.

Booster Doses Of Pneumococcal Vaccine

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If you’re at increased risk of a pneumococcal infection, you’ll be given a single dose of the PPV vaccine.

But if your spleen does not work properly or you have a chronic kidney condition, you may need booster doses of PPV every 5 years.

This is because your levels of antibodies against the infection decrease over time.

Your GP surgery will advise you on whether you’ll need a booster dose.

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Can I Administer Ppsv23 And Pcv13 At The Same Office Visit

No, never give PPSV23 and PCV13 together. The recommended order for the two vaccines, if possible, is to give PCV13 first followed by PPSV23 later. The interval between administrations depends on the age of the patient, the indication for giving it, and which vaccine you administer first. See Pneumococcal Vaccine Timing for Adults pdf icon for additional details.

People With Medical Risk Factors

In addition to the 3 doses of 13vPCV routinely recommended for healthy non-Indigenous children < 5 years of age, children 12 months of age with risk conditions for pneumococcal disease are recommended to receive:

  • An additional dose of at 6 months of age
  • a dose of at 4 years of age
  • a 2nd dose of at least 5 years after the 1st dose of 23vPPV

This is because of the higher disease burden and the possibility of lower antibody responses in these children.2-4

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children diagnosed with risk conditions at 12 months of age who live in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia already receive these extra doses as part of their routine schedule.

Any child aged 6 to 11 months with a newly identified risk condition who has not received an additional dose of 13vPCV at 6 months of age should receive this dose at diagnosis. The exception is children who have received a haematopoietic stem cell transplant these children are recommended to receive 3 doses of 13vPCV after transplantation, followed by 2 doses of 23vPPV

All children and adults with newly identified risk conditions are recommended to receive:

  • 1 dose of at diagnosis (at least 2 months after any previous doses of 13vPCV
  • or at 4 years of age whichever is later
  • a 2nd dose of 23vPPV at least 5 years later

See also Vaccine information and Variations from product information for more details.

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Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

These include:

  • redness where the injection was given
  • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

Who Else Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccination

ASK UNMC What is the new recommendation on pneumonia vaccines for older adults?

For adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends pneumococcal vaccination for:

  • Anyone 65 years of age and older

  • Adults with any of these health conditions:

  • Chronic illnesses such as lung, heart, liver or kidney disease asthma diabetes or alcoholism

  • Conditions that weaken the immune system cochlear implants or cerebro-spinal fluid leaks asplenia

  • Adults who smoke cigarettes

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Why Am I At Risk For Pneumococcal Disease

Normally, your body fights off anything that isnt part of itself, like germs and viruses. That system of protection is called your immune system. Having kidney disease and kidney failure can weaken your immune system, making it easier for infections to take hold. In fact, doctors and researchers have found that most infections, like those caused by pneumococcal disease, are worse in people with kidney disease. People with a kidney transplant also have weakened immune systems. This is because antirejection medicines , which protect the body from rejecting the transplanted kidney, suppress the immune system. The good news? Getting vaccinated can help protect against pneumococcal disease.

Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

1. What

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

2. Who

Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

3. How

4. Why

Vaccines Recommended For Adults Age 65 And Older

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Vaccines are an important step in protecting your health and the health of your family. Vaccines are particularly important for older adults. Risks to certain diseases are higher for this age group since it can be more difficult to fight off infections as your immune system naturally weakens as you get older.

These infections, such as flu, pneumonia, shingles, tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough and COVID-19, increase your risk for complications, which can lead to long-term illness and hospitalization.

There are five vaccines adults age 65 and older should consider to prevent certain diseases:

  • Influenza vaccine
  • Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine
  • COVID-19 vaccine

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Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine also known as Prevenar 13 offers protection against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to young children as part of their routine NHS vaccinations. Its also available for adults under 65 through our vaccination service.

The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine also known as Pneumovax 23 offers protection against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. This type is given to adults over 65 and anyone with a very high risk of pneumonia.

When To See A Doctor

A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.

Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.

A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.

However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.

Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:

  • respiratory distress, such as wheezing

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Does Medicare Cover Vaccines For Older Adults

Medicare Part B covers vaccines that protect against the flu and pneumococcal disease and the hepatitis B vaccine if youre at increased risk for hepatitis B. It also covers vaccines that you might need after an injury or coming into contact with a disease .

Medicare Part D plans generally cover more vaccines than Part B. But depending on your Medicare Part D plan, you may have out-of-pocket costs for these vaccines. Contact Medicare to find out whats covered.

Did you know? There is a high-dose flu vaccine and an adjuvanted flu vaccine, which includes an adjuvant that creates a stronger immune response. Both vaccines are designed to be more effective in older adults. Learn more about flu vaccines for adults age 65 and older .

What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccines

Pneumonia Vaccination

PCV13 and PPSV23 can both cause mild side effects. Both pneumococcal vaccines are given in the arm and are injected into muscle. Children and adults may experience arm soreness, swelling, or redness where the shot was injected. Other side effects that may occur in adults include:

  • Fatigue

  • Drowsiness

PCV13 should not be given to children at the same time as the annual flu shot, because of an increased risk of . These seizures are caused by a high fever and occur in up to 5% of children under 5. They can be scary, but dont cause any long-term health problems.

The good news is that the side effects will resolve on their own within a few days.

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How Many Doses Of Pcv13 Can An Adult Get In A Lifetime Who/when

CDC recommends adults receive 1 dose of PCV13, if indicated and if they have not received PCV13 previously . In addition, adults age 65 or older who do not have an immunocompromising condition, cerebrospinal fluid leak, or cochlear implant can choose to receive PCV13 based on shared clinical decision-making. However, if an adult received a dose of PCV13 prior to turning 65 years of age , they should not receive a dose of PCV13 when they turn 65.

Are The Pneumonia Vaccines Safe

Yes, pneumonia vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, they go through rigorous scientific testing and review. Although both pneumococcal vaccines can cause mild side effects, severe reactions to the vaccines are rare. In one study of adults over age 70 who received the PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines, there was only one adverse event that was related to the vaccine.

Allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, but they can occur and may be serious. If you have had an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the pneumococcal vaccines or to a prior dose of a pneumococcal vaccine, you should not get vaccinated without talking to your healthcare provider first.

If you have questions about whether the pneumonia vaccines are safe for you, discuss this with your healthcare provider. You can also find information about pneumococcal vaccine safety here.

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Vaccines To Help Prevent Pneumonia

Pneumococcal disease is a serious infection that spreads from person to person by air. It often causes pneumonia in the lungs and it can affect other parts of the body.

There are two pneumococcal vaccines: PPSV23 and PCV13. According to the CDC, adults who are age 65 and older should get the PPSV23 vaccine. Some older adults may also need the PCV13 vaccine. Talk with your health care professional to find out if you need both pneumococcal vaccines.

Why Is Pneumococcal Vaccine Important

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Pneumococcal vaccine can prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by 23 types of the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. These 23 types account for approximately nine out of 10 cases of pneumococcal disease. The vaccine is recommended for people with certain medical conditions listed below, and people 65 years of age and older. About eight out of 10 cases occur in these high- risk groups. The vaccine protects about 50 to 80 per cent of people against pneumococcal infection. Vaccination also makes the disease milder for those who may catch it. This pneumococcal vaccine has been used in Canada since 1983.

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What Are The Pneumonia Vaccines

There are two FDA-approved vaccines that protect against pneumonia:

  • 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or PCV13

  • 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or PPSV23

These immunizations are called pneumonia vaccines because they prevent pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. They are also known as pneumococcal vaccines because they protect against a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Although there are many viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is the most common cause. Pneumococcus can also cause infections in other parts of the body.

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria called “pneumococcus.” It can lead to serious, possibly deadly, illnesses such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis . Anyone can get these diseases, but some people have a higher risk. People with the highest risk include infants, people 65 years and older, and adults of any age with certain health conditions such as kidney disease. You also have a higher risk if you are on dialysis or have a kidney transplant.

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Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.

These include:

  • babies
  • adults aged 65 or over
  • children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition

Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.

People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.

If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.

How Much Does It Cost

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For adults over age 65 who have Medicare Part B, both pneumococcal vaccines are completely covered at no cost, as long as they are given a year apart.

If you have private insurance or Medicaid, you should check with your individual plan to find out if the vaccines are covered. Usually, routinely recommended vaccinations, like the pneumococcal vaccines, are covered by insurance companies without any copays or coinsurance. This means you can often get the vaccines at little or no cost.

If you need to pay out of pocket for the vaccines, you can review prices for PCV13 and PPSV23.

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