Wednesday, September 28, 2022

How Often Do Seniors Need Pneumonia Vaccine

What Are Some Side Effects Of Getting A Vaccine

ASK UNMC What is the new recommendation on pneumonia vaccines for older adults?

Common side effects for all these vaccines are mild and may include pain, swelling, or redness where the vaccine was given.

Before getting any vaccine, talk with your doctor about your health history, including past illnesses and treatments, as well as any allergies.

It’s a good idea to keep your own vaccination record, listing the types and dates of your shots, along with any side effects or problems.

Everything You Need To Know About The Pneumonia Vaccine For Seniors

Medically reviewed by Dr. Nick Rosen, MD on October 12th, 2020

Influenza , coronavirus , and allergies arent the only respiratory illnesses or infections to stress about this fall seasonespecially if you have underlying health concerns, are immunocompromised, or are an at-risk adult over the age of 65. For these individuals, pneumococcal disease and other relative conditions are also cause for concern. Why? For seniors, the risk of contracting pneumonia is exceptionally higher and much more common when the weather is changing. Due to the high risk level, its strongly encouraged that adults age 65 and over receive the pneumonia vaccineyes, it exists! In this article, DispatchHealth is covering everything you need to know about the pneumococcal vaccine for seniors, including what it is and the benefits of receiving it.

Children At High Risk Of Ipd

Infants at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine in a 4 dose schedule at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months followed by a dose at 12 to 15 months of age. Table 3 summarizes the recommended schedules for Pneu-C-13 vaccine for infants and children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition by pneumococcal conjugate vaccination history.

In addition to Pneu-C-13 vaccine, children at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine at 24 months of age, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. If an older child or adolescent at high risk of IPD due to an underlying medical condition has not previously received Pneu-P-23 vaccine, 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine should be administered, at least 8 weeks after Pneu-C-13 vaccine. Children and adolescents at highest risk of IPD should receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.

Table 3: Recommended Schedules for Pneu-C-13 Vaccine for Children 2 months to less than 18 years of age, by Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination History

Age at presentation for immunizationNumber of doses of Pneu-C-7, Pneu-C-10 or Pneu-C-13 previously received

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Babies And The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Babies are routinely vaccinated with a type of pneumococcal vaccine known as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as part of their childhood vaccination programme.

Babies born on or after 1 January 2020 have 2 injections, which are usually given at:

  • 12 weeks old
  • 1 year old

Babies born before this date will continue to be offered 3 doses, at 8 and 16 weeks and a booster at 1 year.

Adults At High Risk Of Ipd

How Often Should U Get A Pneumonia Shot

Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.

Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.

Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.

Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.

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When To See A Doctor

A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.

Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.

A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.

However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.

Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:

  • respiratory distress, such as wheezing

How Did Cdc Make The Decision To Recommend Pcv13 For Adults

CDC sets the adult immunization schedule based on recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices . ACIP used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach or Evidence to Recommendations framework to evaluate evidence for PCV13 vaccination recommendations:

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What Is Pneumococcal Disease

This contagious disease is caused by pneumococcal bacteria , which is the root concern behind many mild to severe respiratory infections. Pneumococcal bacteria can spread from person to person easily via respiratory droplets shared by coughing, sneezing, or close contact to an infected individual or surface. This disease typically starts as a mild infection in the nose, throat, ears, and sinusesbecoming extreme once it spreads to other parts of the body. In severe cases, an individual can develop pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitiswhich can lead to complications and disabilities .

Select Safety Information For Pneumovax 23

Do I need a pneumonia vaccine?

Do not administer PNEUMOVAX®23 to individuals with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of the vaccine.

Defer vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 in persons with moderate or severe acute illness.

Use caution and appropriate care in administering PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with severely compromised cardiovascular and/or pulmonary function in whom a systemic reaction would pose a significant risk.

Available human data from clinical trials of PNEUMOVAX 23 in pregnancy have not established the presence or absence of a vaccine-associated risk.

Since elderly individuals may not tolerate medical interventions as well as younger individuals, a higher frequency and/or a greater severity of reactions in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Persons who are immunocompromised, including persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished immune response to PNEUMOVAX 23.

PNEUMOVAX 23 may not be effective in preventing pneumococcal meningitis in patients who have chronic cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting from congenital lesions, skull fractures, or neurosurgical procedures.

For subjects aged 65 years or older in a clinical study, systemic adverse reactions which were determined by the investigator to be vaccine-related were higher following revaccination than following initial vaccination.

Vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 may not offer 100% protection from pneumococcal infection.

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Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.

These include:

  • babies
  • adults aged 65 or over
  • children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition

Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.

People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.

If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.

Can I Administer Ppsv23 And Pcv13 At The Same Office Visit

No, never give PPSV23 and PCV13 together. The recommended order for the two vaccines, if possible, is to give PCV13 first followed by PPSV23 later. The interval between administrations depends on the age of the patient, the indication for giving it, and which vaccine you administer first. See Pneumococcal Vaccine Timing for Adults pdf icon for additional details.

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Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

PCV13
helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
  • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
  • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
  • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
  • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
  • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
  • another version of the shot called PCV7
  • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
  • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
  • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
  • are very sick

When To Get The Vaccine & What To Expect

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Of course, before seeking the pneumococcal vaccines, its important to first speak with your primary care physician and other providers in your healthcare network. Both vaccines are safe but can have side effects and should be avoided by individuals with allergic reactions to any of the components in the vaccine. Keep in mind, its recommended that you not receive both vaccines at the same time. Talk to your healthcare provider to determine if both vaccinations are the right choice for your needs. If both vaccines are needed, PCV13 should be given prior to PPSV23. Its important to schedule a separate visitation at least one year after the professionally suggested PCV13 vaccination to receive a dose of the PPSV23 vaccine.

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How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last

Streptococcus pneumoniaevaccinepneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae

  • Younger than 2 years old: four shots
  • 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
  • Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker

Persons With Chronic Diseases

Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

Asplenia or hyposplenia

Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis

Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

Neurologic disorders

Chronic lung disease, including asthma

Chronic heart disease

Chronic liver disease

Endocrine and metabolic diseases

Non-malignant hematologic disorders

Cochlear implants

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Vaccines To Help Prevent Pneumonia

Pneumococcal disease is a serious infection that spreads from person to person by air. It often causes pneumonia in the lungs and it can affect other parts of the body.

There are two pneumococcal vaccines: PPSV23 and PCV13. According to the CDC, adults who are age 65 and older should get the PPSV23 vaccine. Some older adults may also need the PCV13 vaccine. Talk with your health care professional to find out if you need both pneumococcal vaccines.

How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works

Pneumonia Vaccination

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.

They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.

More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.

The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

1. What

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

2. Who

Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

3. How

4. Why

When Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Given

The pneumonia vaccine is not the same as the flu vaccine, as it doesnt need to be given at a certain time of year. Rather, it can be given at any time, as long as its safe for you to have it.

However, if youre in a high-risk group for pneumonia, you should get the vaccine as soon as possible to make sure youre protected.

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The Importance Of The Pneumonia Vaccine For Seniors

The warm weather makes it hard to imagine that the winter is on its way, but the cold temperatures are just around the corner! And with those cooler temperatures comes the increased risk of pneumonia, especially for very young children and seniors. Therefore, it is important to get the pneumonia vaccine during this time of the year. Overall, having a winter safety checklist could prevent challenges, especially for our seniors.

Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

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People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

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Who Needs The Pneumococcal Vaccine

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the PPSV23 vaccine for all adults 65 years or older as well as adults 19 years or older with certain medical conditions that could put them at greater risk of infection. The PCV13 vaccine, on the other hand, should be a shared decision between the patient and clinician due to additional medical considerations.

Booster Doses Of Pneumococcal Vaccine

If you’re at increased risk of a pneumococcal infection, you’ll be given a single dose of the PPV vaccine.

But if your spleen does not work properly or you have a chronic kidney condition, you may need booster doses of PPV every 5 years.

This is because your levels of antibodies against the infection decrease over time.

Your GP surgery will advise you on whether you’ll need a booster dose.

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