Thursday, September 29, 2022

How Often Do You Need To Take The Pneumonia Shot

Who Should Get The Vaccine

Ask the Expert: Who should get a Pneumococcal Vaccine?

People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.

Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.

If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.

The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.

People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.

Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.

People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.

Before Taking This Medicine

You should not receive Prevnar 13 if you ever had a severe allergic reaction to a pneumococcal or diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

Tell the vaccination provider if you or the child has:

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia or easy bruising or

  • a weak immune system .

Before your child receives Prevnar 13, tell your doctor if the child was born prematurely.

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving Prevnar 13.

Tell the vaccination provider if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

These include:

  • redness where the injection was given
  • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

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Medical Conditions Resulting In High Risk Of Ipd

Table 1: Medical Conditions Resulting in High risk of IPD

Non-immunocompromising conditions

IPD is more common in the winter and spring in temperate climates.

Spectrum of clinical illness

Although asymptomatic upper respiratory tract colonization is common, infection with S. pneumoniae may result in severe disease. IPD is a severe form of infection that occurs when S. pneumoniae invades normally sterile sites, such as the bloodstream or central nervous system. Bacteremia and meningitis are the most common manifestations of IPD in children 2 years of age and younger. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common presentation among adults and is a common complication following influenza. The case fatality rate of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is 5% to 7% and is higher among elderly persons. Bacterial spread within the respiratory tract may result in AOM, sinusitis or recurrent bronchitis.

Disease distribution

Worldwide, pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that almost 500,000 deaths among children aged less than 5 years are attributable to pneumococcal disease each year. In Canada, IPD is most common among the very young and adults over 65 years of age.

Who Should Get Pneumococcal Vaccines

Your Child

CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children younger than 2 years old and all adults 65 years or older. In certain situations, older children and other adults should also get pneumococcal vaccines. Below is more information about who should and should not get each type of pneumococcal vaccine.

Talk to your or your childs doctor about what is best for your specific situation.

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Where Can I Find These Vaccines

Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.

PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:

  • Pediatric and family practice offices
  • Community health clinics

If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:

  • Pharmacies
  • Health departments
  • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.

When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

What Is A Tdap Shot

The Tdap shot is a common tetanus vaccine. But this vaccine protects against more germs than just tetanus.

Tdap stands for tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis. Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that can cause trouble breathing, heart damage, and paralysis. Pertussis, or whooping cough, can cause pneumonia, seizures, and brain damage, especially in infants and children. The word acellular means that only part of the pertussis bacteria is used to make the vaccine.

The diphtheria and pertussis vaccines are commonly combined with tetanus because of similar recommended vaccine schedules. This helps lower the number of shots given at one time.

Tdap vaccines can be given to anyone over the age of 10. The first dose is recommended between ages 11 and 12. After that, you get regular boosters every 10 years, with a few exceptions that well discuss below. A tip to remember when to get your next tetanus vaccine is on your decade birthdays .

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Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

Persons New To Canada

Pneumonia Can Be PreventedVaccines Can Help Older Adults

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.

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How Long Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Last

For most adults, one dose of the pneumonia vaccine should last a lifetime. In other words, you wont usually need to get another dose. This makes it different to the flu vaccine, which is given every year.

For some people, boosters of the pneumonia vaccine will be needed. This will be the case for people who have underlying health conditions that make them high-risk for pneumonia and related conditions. Your doctor will let you know if you need another vaccine.

If youre somebody who needs top-ups of the pneumonia vaccine, youll be able to receive them for free on the NHS.

Should You Get A Flu Shot

In general, every person with diabetes needs a flu shot each year. Talk with your doctor about having a flu shot. Flu shots do not give 100% protection, but they do make it less likely for you to catch the flu for about six months.

For extra safety, it’s a good idea for the people you live with or spend a lot of time with to get a flu shot, too. You are less likely to get the flu if the people around you don’t have it.

The best time to get your flu shot is beginning in September. The shot takes about two weeks to take effect.

If youre sick , ask if you should wait until you are healthy again before having your flu shot. And don’t get a flu shot if you are allergic to eggs.

You are advised to continue to take the general precautions of preventing seasonal flu and other communicable illnesses and diseases:

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash. If you dont have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your elbow, not your hand.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread that way.
  • Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
  • If you get sick, stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.

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What Is Prevnar 13

Prevnar 13 is used to help prevent disease caused by pneumococcal bacteria. This vaccine contains 13 different types of pneumococcal bacteria.

Pneumococcal disease is a serious infection caused by a bacteria. Pneumococcal bacteria can infect the sinuses and inner ear. It can also infect the lungs, blood, and brain, and these conditions can be fatal.

Prevnar 13 works by exposing you to a small amount of the bacteria or a protein from the bacteria, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease. Prevnar 13 will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body.

Pneumococcal 13-valent vaccine is for use in adults and children at least 6 weeks old.

Prevnar 13 helps your body develop immunity to the disease, but will not treat an active infection you already have.

Like any vaccine, Prevnar 13 may not provide protection from disease in every person.

Common And Local Adverse Events

Pneumonia Vaccines

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Studies of Pneu-C-13 vaccine indicated that irritability decreased appetite increased or decreased sleep and pain, swelling and redness at the injection site after the toddler dose and in older children, are common side effects. Low grade fever occurred in 20% to 30% or more of vaccine recipients. In adults over 50 years of age, the most commonly reported side effects included pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache and new onset of myalgia, with fever above 38°C occurring in approximately 3% of vaccine recipients.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

Reactions to Pneu-P-23 vaccine are usually mild. Soreness, redness and swelling at the injection site occur in 30% to 60% of vaccine recipients and more commonly follow SC administration than IM administration. Occasionally, low grade fever may occur. Re-immunization of healthy adults less than 2 years after the initial dose is associated with increased injection site and systemic reactions. Studies have suggested that re-vaccination after an interval of at least 4 years is not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects. However, severe injection site reactions, including reports of injection site cellulitis and peripheral edema in the injected extremity, have been documented rarely with Pneu-P-23 vaccine in post-marketing surveillance, even with the first dose. Multiple re-vaccinations are not recommended refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

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Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.

These include:

  • babies
  • adults aged 65 or over
  • children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition

Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.

People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.

If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.

Pneumococcal Diseases & Pneumonia Shots

There is a category of diseases called pneumococcal disease, of which pneumonia is one of the most dangerousthe other most dangerous being meningitis. People with diabetes are about three times more likely to die with flu and pneumococcal diseases, yet most dont get a simple, safe pneumonia shot.

Symptoms of pneumonia include:

Cough that can produce mucus that is gray, yellow, or streaked with blood Chest pain

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How Is Prevnar 13 Given

Prevnar 13 is given as an injection into a muscle.

For infants and toddlers, the pneumococcal 13-valent vaccine is given in a series of shots. The first shot is usually given when the child is 6 weeks to 2 months old. The booster shots are then given at 4 months, 6 months, and 12 to 15 months of age.

If your child is 7 months to 5 years old, he or she can still receive Prevnar 13 on the following schedule:

  • Age 7-11 months: Two shots at least 4 weeks apart, followed by a third shot after the child turns 1 year .

  • Age 12-23 months: Two shots at least 2 months apart.

  • Age 24 months to 5 years : One shot.

The timing of this vaccination is very important for it to be effective. Your child’s individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor’s instructions or the schedule recommended by your local health department.

For adults and children older than 5 years, Prevnar 13 is usually given as one shot.

Be sure to keep your child on a regular schedule for other immunizations such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis , hepatitis, and varicella . Your doctor or state health department can provide you with a recommended immunization schedule.

How Often Should You Get A Tetanus Booster Shot

Ways you can avoid pneumonia

Tetanus booster shots are recommended every 10 years to prevent infections. As long as youve received one dose of Tdap, boosters can be either a Tdap or Td shot.

Theres a catch-up schedule for adults who never received childhood tetanus shots. Its recommended the first catch-up dose be a Tdap shot. The rest of the series can be Tdap or Td shots.

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How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . This vaccine joins a protein which helps build immunity. Infants and very young children do not respond to polysaccharide antigens, but linkage to this protein enables the developing immune system to recognize and process polysaccharide antigens, leading to production of antibody. It helps protect against disease from13 types of Streptococcal pneumoniae capsular serotypes that are the most common cause of serious infection. Typically, children receive three doses and adults at high risk of severe pneumococcal infection receive one dose.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . This vaccine looks like certain bacteria. This stimulates the body to build protection against the 23 serotypes of Streptococcal pneumonia contained in the vaccine. These 23 serotypes now represent at least 50% to 60% of pneumococcal disease isolates in adults. Most people receive a single dose, with one to two boosters recommended for some.
  • What If It Is Not Clear What A Person’s Vaccination History Is

    When indicated, vaccines should be administered to patients with unknown vaccination status. All residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities should have their vaccination status assessed and documented.

    How long must a person wait to receive other vaccinations?

    Inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanusvaccines may be given at the same time as or at any time before or after a dose of pneumococcus vaccine. There are no requirements to wait between the doses of these or any other inactivated vaccines.

    Vaccination of children recommended

    In July 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC jointly recommended childhood pneumococcal immunization, since pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States.

    “The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13 or Prevnar 13, is currently recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age, all adults 65 years or older, and persons 6 through 64 years of age with certain medical conditions,” according to the 2014 AAP/CDC guidelines. “Pneumovax is a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that is currently recommended for use in all adults 65 years of age or older and for persons who are 2 years and older and at high risk for pneumococcal disease . PPSV23 is also recommended for use in adults 19 through 64 years of age who smoke cigarettes or who have asthma.”

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