Thursday, September 29, 2022

How Often Should One Get A Pneumonia Vaccine

What Is The Pneumonia Shot

How long should you wait to get the COVID-19 vaccine after getting a pneumonia shot?

The pneumonia shot is a vaccine that keeps you from getting pneumonia. There are two types of vaccines. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is primarily for children under age two, though it can be given to older ages, as well. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is for adults over age 65.

The pneumonia vaccine for older adults is one dose. Unlike the flu vaccine, you dont get it every year.

The vaccine teaches your body to make proteins that will destroy the pneumonia bacteria. These proteins are called antibodies and they will protect you and keep you from getting infected. The pneumonia vaccines dont have live bacteria or viruses in them, so you wont get pneumonia from the vaccine.

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You should have the pneumonia vaccine if you:

  • Are over age 65
  • Have a long-term health problem
  • Asthma
  • Have a weak immune system
  • Smoke
  • Vaccines dont prevent all pneumonia, but people who get the shot dont get as sick as those who dont have it. Benefits of the vaccine include:

    • Milder infections
    • Ringing in your ears
    • Sweating

    If you know you dont like needles or feel worried before getting a vaccine, you can try to look away while you have the shot. You can also try a relaxation technique like deep breathing or visualization to help you feel calm.

    Older people are more likely to have long-term health problems that can make getting an infection dangerous. The pneumonia shot is recommended for most people.

    Continued

    Recommended But Not Funded

    Risk stacking

    Two classifications of IPD risk are recognised: high-risk conditions for which there is significant risk of IPD and atrisk conditions, which on their own may not significantly increase risk, but when combined together or with lifestyle risk factors increase an individuals risk of IPD. This is described as risk stacking IPD incidence substantially increases with the accumulation of concurrent risk factors or conditions. The risk of pneumococcal infections in those with two or more at-risk conditions may be as high as the risk for those with a recognised high-risk condition.

    Recommendations

    PCV13 and 23PPV are recommended but not funded for the following individuals:

    • immune-competent adults at increased risk of pneumococcal disease or its complications because of chronic illness
    • adults with cerebrospinal uid leak
    • immunocompromised adults at increased risk of pneumococcal disease
    • individuals of any age who have had one episode of IPD
    • smokers.

    For those individuals who choose to purchase PCV13 and 23PPV vaccines, providers may follow the age-appropriate schedules in Table 16.4 and Table 16.5.

    Adults aged 65 years and older with no other risk factors

    Give one dose of PCV13 followed at least eight weeks later with 23PPV .

    Will Being Vaccinated Against Flu Pneumonia And Shingles Help Prevent Covid

    The short answer is no. But reducing your risk for getting sick with the flu, pneumonia, or shingles which is what these vaccines do makes a lot of sense during the pandemic, Privor-Dumm says.

    Lowering your risk for vaccine-preventable diseases will help you avoid doctors offices and hospitals, which will reduce any potential exposure to the coronavirus, Privor-Dumm adds.

    Plus, Privor-Dumm says, Preventing serious disease can help keep you out of the hospital at a time when health resources may be needed to treat COVID-19 patients.

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    Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

    People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

    Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

    Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

    A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

    Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

    There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

    The two types are:

    • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
    • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

    According to the

    • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
    • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
    • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

    Why It Is Used

    Travel Clinic

    Pneumococcus is a type of bacteria that can cause severe infections, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and blood infections . These infections can be serious and can even cause death, especially in people who have impaired immune systems, older adults, and children younger than 2 years of age.

    Doctors use two types of pneumococcal vaccines for routine immunization: pneumococcal conjugate or pneumococcal polysaccharide . The type of vaccine used depends on a persons age.

    • Pneumococcal conjugate
    • PCV is recommended for routine use in babies who get 3 or 4 doses depending on your provincial recommendations.
    • Children from 1 to 18 years old may be recommended to get an extra dose if they did not get all the doses as a baby. They may also need an extra dose if they have certain medical conditions that place them at high risk for infection with pneumococcus.
    • The vaccine may be recommended for adults at high risk for infection with pneumococcus. This recommendation depends on the medical condition the adult has and on provincial recommendations.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide for people at high risk
  • PPV is generally recommended for all people 65 and older and for those ages 2 to 64 who have a chronic disease or illness, an impaired immune system, or who live in areas or among social groups where there is an increased risk for pneumonia or meningitis.
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    Measles Mumps Rubella And Varicella Vaccine

    The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently introduced a new measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine to the Publicly Funded Immunization Schedules for Ontario.

    Immunization against measles, mumps and rubella is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted. Immunization against varicella is also required for children born in 2010 or later.

    What is measles?

    Measles can be a serious infection. It causes high fever, cough, rash, runny nose and watery eyes. Measles lasts for one to two weeks. Ear infections or pneumonia can happen in one out of every 10 children with measles. Measles can also be complicated by encephalitis, an infection of the brain, in about one out of every 1,000 children with measles. This may cause brain damage and developmental delays. Measles can also make a pregnant woman have a miscarriage or give birth prematurely.

    Measles spreads from person to person very easily and quickly. People can get measles from an infected person coughing or sneezing around them or simply talking to them.

    What is mumps?

    Mumps can cause very painful, swollen testicles in about one out of four teenage boys or adult men, and painful infection of the ovaries in one out of 20 women. Mumps infection during the first three months of pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage. Mumps can cause deafness in some people.

    What is rubella ?

    What is varicella ?

    Side Effects Of The Tetanus Shot

    The side effects for Tdap and Td shots are similar. The most common side effects include:

    • Pain, swelling, or redness where you were vaccinated

    • Mild fever

    In addition to these, the Tdap shot may cause:

    • Chills

    • Nausea or vomiting

    • Swollen glands

    Everyones response to vaccines is different. You may have some, all, or none of the above side effects. But theyre typically mild and fast-passing. Side effects usually resolve within a few days.

    Rarely, some people experience allergic reactions to the vaccines. Any vaccine may cause allergic reactions. Signs of an allergic reaction include a severe rash, swelling, or trouble breathing. This is an emergency situation. Call 911 immediately. Most healthcare providers ask you to remain at their office for 15 minutes after receiving vaccines to watch for these signs.

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    What Are The Side Effects

    Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get pneumococcal disease.

    Many people have no side effects from the vaccines. For those that do, side effects are usually mild and last 1 to 2 days . Serious side effects are very rare.

    It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is a very rare possibility, between one in 100,000 and one in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes injection of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.

    It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your immunizing health care provider.

    Why Are Children More Prone To Pneumonia

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    A child is more likely to get pneumonia if he or she has a weak immune system, chronic health problems such as asthma or cystic fibrosis, or any other airway disease.

    In addition, children who are younger than 1 year are more likely to contract pneumonia if they are regularly exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. This is especially true if their mothers are smokers.

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    Are There Any Special Situations I Should Be Aware Of

    Tetanus shots are for more than routine prevention. They can also help prevent infection when you get cut.

    If your wound is minor and clean , youd only need a booster if its been more than 10 years since your last one. Either a Tdap or Td shot can be used.

    For some injuries, such as puncture wounds or animal attacks, you may need a tetanus shot sooner. In these situations, a Tdap or Td vaccine is recommended if its been more than 5 years since your last booster.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Pneumococcal Disease

    Symptoms are not the same for everyone. They can be different from person to person. They can appear very suddenly and without warning. Depending on whether the infection causes pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis, you may have some combination of the following:

    • Abrupt onset of fever
    • Stiff neck
    • Disorientation

    If you develop any of these symptoms, seek immediate medical help. Call 911 or go to the emergency room

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    Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine

    DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months

    DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine is a combined vaccine that protects children against five diseases diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and serious diseases like meningitis caused by haemophilus influenzae type b.

    Immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.

    What is diphtheria?

    Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.

    What is tetanus?

    Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.

    What is pertussis?

    What is polio?

    What is haemophilus influenzae type b disease?

    Children under five years are more likely to get Hib disease. Children who attend childcare centres are even more likely to catch it. The Hib germ spreads to others through coughing and sneezing.

    Difference Between Viral And Bacterial Pneumonia

    Pneumonia: Types, Symptoms, &  Dietary Changes

    Bacterial pneumonia occurs due to a bacterial infection and sometimes it may cause septicemia. In this case, blood cultures will be positive for the bacteria that have caused pneumonia. Sputum cultures also identify the type of bacteria that is causing pneumonia.

    Antibiotics help in treating bacterial pneumonia. Viral pneumonia usually gets better on its own. However, viral pneumonia can lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia.

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    What Is Pneumococcal Disease

    Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by bacteria called “pneumococcus.” It can lead to serious, possibly deadly, illnesses such as pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis . Anyone can get these diseases, but some people have a higher risk. People with the highest risk include infants, people 65 years and older, and adults of any age with certain health conditions such as kidney disease. You also have a higher risk if you are on dialysis or have a kidney transplant.

    Tetanus Diphtheria And Pertussis Vaccine

    Tdap is a three-in-one vaccine. It protects people against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis.

    Immunization against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis is required by law for all children attending school in Ontario, unless exempted.

    What is tetanus?

    Tetanus or lockjaw is a serious disease that can happen if dirt with the tetanus germ gets into a cut in the skin. Tetanus germs are found everywhere, usually in soil, dust and manure. It does not spread from person to person. Tetanus causes cramping of the muscles in the neck, arms, leg and stomach, and painful convulsions which can be severe enough to break bones. Even with early treatment, tetanus kills two out of every 10 people who get it.

    What is diphtheria?

    Diphtheria is a serious disease of the nose, throat and skin. It causes sore throat, fever and chills. It can be complicated by breathing problems, heart failure and nerve damage. Diphtheria kills about one out of every 10 people who get the disease. It is most often passed to others through coughing and sneezing.

    What is pertussis?

    For more information talk to your health care provider, contact your local Public Health Unit or visit ontario.ca/vaccines.

    Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.

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    What Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Do

    Pneumonia is a serious condition that attacks the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing. It often requires hospitalisation, and can be life-threatening especially for the elderly or for people with weakened immune systems.

    Pneumonia can be caused by viruses and fungi, but its usually caused by a bacterial infection. This is why both types of the pneumonia vaccine work by generating antibodies to kill pneumococcal bacteria. Once youve had the vaccine, your body will be able to use these antibodies to quickly fight off the bacteria strains that cause pneumonia.

    How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

    Ask the Expert: Who should get a Pneumococcal Vaccine?

    There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . This vaccine joins a protein which helps build immunity. Infants and very young children do not respond to polysaccharide antigens, but linkage to this protein enables the developing immune system to recognize and process polysaccharide antigens, leading to production of antibody. It helps protect against disease from13 types of Streptococcal pneumoniae capsular serotypes that are the most common cause of serious infection. Typically, children receive three doses and adults at high risk of severe pneumococcal infection receive one dose.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . This vaccine looks like certain bacteria. This stimulates the body to build protection against the 23 serotypes of Streptococcal pneumonia contained in the vaccine. These 23 serotypes now represent at least 50% to 60% of pneumococcal disease isolates in adults. Most people receive a single dose, with one to two boosters recommended for some.
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    What Side Effects Should I Look Out For

    Side effects vary from vaccine to vaccine, according to Privor-Dumm.

    According to the U.S Department of Health and Human Services website Vaccine.org, common issues include:

    • Soreness at the injection site
    • A low-grade fever
    • Muscle aches
    • Fatigue

    In very rare cases, you may be allergic to the ingredients in a vaccine or have another severe reaction. If you feel sick in any way after receiving a shot, call your doctor, Privor-Dumm says.

    Rotavirus Vaccine Given At 2 And 4 Months

    What is rotavirus?

    Rotavirus is a common infection that causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children. Rotavirus is very contagious, spreading easily from children who are already infected to other infants, children and sometimes adults. Most children are infected with rotavirus at least once by five years of age. Serious but rare symptoms commonly seen in children less than two years of age include severe diarrhea, leading to hospitalization.

    Rotavirus infection is a major cause of visits to health care providers and hospital stays for infants and children under five years of age in Ontario. Deaths in Ontario due to rotavirus are rare.

    Some immunizations are required for children to attend school in Ontario. Please see the school immunization checklist for more information.

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    Questions To Ask Your Doctor

    • When should I make an appointment to get each type of pneumococcal vaccine?
    • Should I still get the vaccines if Ive recently had pneumonia?
    • Should I wait to turn 65 before I get each dose of pneumococcal vaccines?
    • If I have a negative reaction to one type of pneumococcal vaccine, am I likely to have that same reaction to the other?

    Funding was provided for these pneumococcal resources through an unrestricted grant from Pfizer Independent Grant for Learning and Change .

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