How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person
Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.
Questions To Ask Your Doctor
- I have a chronic condition. Am I at higher risk for pneumonia?
- Do I have bacterial, viral, or fungal pneumonia? Whats the best treatment?
- Am I contagious?
- How serious is my pneumonia? Will I need to be hospitalized?
- What can I do at home to help relieve my symptoms?
- What are the possible complications of pneumonia? How will I know if Im developing complications?
- What should I do if my symptoms dont respond to treatment or get worse?
- Do we need to schedule a follow-up exam?
- Do I need any vaccines?
Healthy Diet And Lifestyle
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health recommends a healthy diet, being physically active, managing psychological stress, and getting enough sleep.
Consistently meeting scientific guidelines of 150+ minutes per week of exercise or similar physical activity was shown to be associated with a smaller risk of hospitalisation and death due to COVID-19, even when considering likely risk factors such as elevated BMI.
A meta-analysis, published online in October 2021, concluded that Vitamin D supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients has the potential to positively impact patients with both mild and severe symptoms. The largest observational study on the subject using online questionnaires, with over 6 000 participants and a dosage regime near the RDI, is set to conclude in July 2021.One of the collaborators in the study is Synergy Biologics Ltd, a manufacturer of vitamin D3 supplements.
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When To Call The Doctor
You should call your childs doctor if your child:
- Has trouble breathing or is breathing much faster than usual
- Has a bluish or gray color to the fingernails or lips
- Is older than 6 months and has a fever over 102°F
- Is younger than 6 months and has a temperature over 100.4°F.
- Has a fever for more than a few days after taking antibiotics
When your child should stay home and return to school or childcare
Tests To Find The Cause Of Pneumonia
Pneumonia testing may include a range of tests to identify why pneumonia occurred. There are many potential causes of pneumonia including an infection with a bacteria, virus, or fungus. When the cause is known, the doctor can choose a tailored therapy that offers the most benefit and least risk.
This kind of testing is not routinely performed in patients with mild cases of pneumonia. Trying to identify the cause is of greater importance when a patient is hospitalized or at higher risk of severe complications from pneumonia.
Although many tests are available to look for the underlying cause, in the majority of cases, no single cause can be conclusively identified.
The following sections describe different types of tests that may be used to detect the cause of pneumonia. Each section is organized based on the type of sample that is used for testing.
Sputum is a thick kind of mucus produced in the lungs that is also known as phlegm. It is distinct from saliva or spit because its thickness helps it trap and remove pathogens from the lungs. For this reason, sputum can be analyzed to check for signs of bacteria, viruses, or other pathogens.
There are three main ways that a sputum sample can be obtained. The least invasive way of collecting sputum is by coughing deeply so that sputum can be spit into a cup. Before this, you may inhale a vapor that makes it easier to produce a testable amount of sputum.
Throat or nasal swab tests
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The Role Of Pneumonia Tests
Pneumonia tests may be performed for one or more of the following reasons:
- Diagnosis: Many pneumonia tests are conducted in order to determine whether a person has pneumonia. Some symptoms of pneumonia also commonly occur with a cold or flu, so diagnostic testing can be important to identify the actual cause of those symptoms. Testing to rule out pneumonia is a part of diagnosing many other kinds of respiratory conditions.
- Assessing disease severity: After pneumonia has been identified, testing can reveal its severity and whether it affects one or both lungs. Tests can also check for complications of pneumonia that can pose significant health risks.
- Identifying the cause of pneumonia: There are multiple possible causes of pneumonia, and tests may be used to help find the bacteria, virus, fungus, or other pathogens that caused the infection. When possible, determining what pathogen is causing the infection can enable more tailored and effective treatment.
- Monitoring: Continued testing after a diagnosis of pneumonia allows doctors to see whether treatment is working and whether a persons condition is improving. Monitoring tests may lead to adjustments to the treatment plan or modifications to the initial pneumonia diagnosis.
What Are The Types Of Pneumonia
There are many different types of pneumonia that are generally categorized based on where an infection was acquired and the underlying cause of the infection. Some common categories of pneumonia include:
- Community-acquired pneumonia: When pneumonia occurs in people who have not recently been in the hospital, it is classified as community-acquired pneumonia. This includes walking pneumonia, which is a nonmedical term that refers to pneumonia with mild symptoms.
- Hospital-acquired pneumonia: This type of pneumonia develops as a result of an infection contracted while a person is in a hospital.
- Ventilator-associated pneumonia: A ventilator is a device that uses a breathing tube to help people who are not able to breathe on their own. When people contract pneumonia as a result of using a ventilator, it is called ventilator-associated pneumonia.
- Pneumocystis pneumonia: This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungal infection and is most common in people who have a weakened immune system.
- Aspiration pneumonia: Aspiration pneumonia can occur when food, saliva, vomit, or another substance manages to enter the lungs. These substances can carry infectious pathogens or inflame or block the lungs and cause a pneumonia infection.
Recognizing the category of pneumonia can help doctors more quickly identify the specific germ causing the infection and initiate the treatment that is most likely to be effective.
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Effect On Other Diseases And The Pharmacy Trade
There was a report on 3 March 2021, that social distancing and common wearing of surgical masks and similar as a common precaution against COVID-19 caused a drop in the spread rate of the common cold and flu. So much so, that in Britain the sale of cough liquids and throat lozenges and from 30 November 2020 to 21 February 2021, was about a half of the sale a year earlier. Public Health England reported no cases of flu in the year 2021 to date, and that there was an 89% rise in sales of Vitamin D to try to boost immunity.
Bronchitis Vs Pneumonia: Why Theyre Related And How Theyre Different
A pneumonia diagnosis is based on your medical history, a physical exam, and certain test results. Your doctor determines which type of pneumonia you have based on how you became infected, what your X-ray or lung exam reveals, and which kind of germ is responsible for your infection.
During a physical exam, your doctor will check your vital signs and listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. Decreased breath sounds is an indication of a lot of inflammation, says Michelle Barron, MD, a professor in the division of infectious diseases at University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora.
If your doctor suspects pneumonia, they may order further diagnostic tests, such as a chest X-ray to help determine the extent of the infection. Blood tests and an analysis of the patients sputum can pinpoint whats causing the pneumonia. Pulse oximetry measures the oxygen level in your blood .
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Can Pneumonia Be Prevented
Check with your healthcare provider about getting immunizations. The flu is a common cause of pneumonia. Because of that, getting a flu shot every year can help prevent both the flu and pneumonia.
There is also a pneumococcal vaccine. It will protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. Children younger than age 5 and adults ages 65 and older should get this shot.
The pneumococcal shot is also recommended for all children and adults who are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions.
Pcr And Enzyme Immunoassays
It can be difficult to culture a virus. Instead, viral infections are more commonly diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassays. To perform any of these tests, a sample must be collected. Depending on what virus is being considered, this sample can be blood, sputum, nasal secretions, or saliva.
PCR is a test that screens for the presence of specific viral or bacterial DNA in a sample. It is an alternative to serology to screen for atypical bacteria. While results are often available in one to six hours, PCR cannot be performed on-site. It must be processed by a laboratory.
Enzyme immunoassays, however, can be performed as a point of care test with results available in 15 minutes to an hour. These immunoassays use antibodies to detect the presence of specific viral antigens and can screen for multiple viruses at one time.
Pneumonia is a common complication of COVID-19. For COVID-19 testing, the most accurate specimen is collected from the nose. This is the part of the upper respiratory tract where concentrations of the virus may be greatest. A flexible six-inch cotton swab is inserted into the nose and along the back of your throat where it is left in place for 15 seconds.
The same swab is then inserted into the other nostril to maximize how much mucous is collected for the test. Studies are then performed to assess if genetic material from the virus is present.
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What Is Walking Pneumonia
Walking pneumonia is a mild case of pneumonia. It is often caused by a virus or the mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria. When you have walking pneumonia, your symptoms may not be as severe or last as long as someone who has a more serious case of pneumonia. You probably wont need bed rest or to stay in the hospital when you have walking pneumonia.
Tests To Assess Lung Function
Pneumonia directly affects the lungs, so the doctor may recommend one or more pulmonary function tests to check how well your lungs are working to provide oxygen to your body.
One type of pulmonary function test is pulse oximetry, which checks whether there is enough oxygen in your blood. The test uses a sensor clipped to your ear or finger that estimates your blood oxygen levels.
Another way of evaluating your blood oxygen levels is with an arterial blood gases test. This test uses a sample of blood taken from an artery and measures the amount of oxygen, blood pH, and carbon dioxide.
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Pneumonia Recovery And Nutrition: You Are What You Eat
A healthy and well-balanced diet is critical to overall health, and it certainly comes into play as our bodies heal from infections and viruses. What you put into your body has a direct impact on your recovery from pneumonia, which is why patients are advised to stop smoking and also limit alcohol consumption if they have or are recovering from pneumonia.
Nutrient-rich foods are known to help our bodies and fight illnesses as well as heal from them, so focusing on a healthy diet will likely shorten your recovery time, too. When it comes to addressing the weakness and fatigue associated with pneumonia, experts point to:
- plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
- foods containing vitamin D
- foods containing iron
A Vitamin D-rich Diet
Vitamin D has been shown to strengthen our immune systems, making it a great tool in terms of fighting many illnesses, including pneumonia, and recovering from them.
While many of us get a daily dose of Vitamin D out in the fresh air, when we are exposed to sunshine, if we are in bed recovering from pneumonia our time in the sun is limited or nonexistent. We can instead look for foods to boost Vitamin D levels, including:
- fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel
- fortified breakfast cereals
In some foods Vitamin D occurs naturally. Others are fortified with Vitamin D , such as breakfast cereals.
An Iron-rich Diet
How Can I Tell If I Have Pneumonia Versus The Common Cold Or The Flu
Do I have a cold or could it be the flu or even pneumonia? Its tough to tell the difference but critical to know when to seek medical care
Watch for these ongoing symptoms that occur in pneumonia:
- Serious congestion or chest pain.
- Difficulty breathing.
- A fever of 102 or higher.
- Coughing that produces pus.
Pneumonia symptoms last longer than cold and flu. If your symptoms arent severe, its okay to try such home remedies as getting more rest, drinking more fluids and taking some over-the-counter medicines and see what happens. But if you dont see improvement in your symptoms after three to five days, or if you are experiencing more serious symptoms such as dizziness or severe difficulty breathing, see your healthcare provider. Dont let it go. Pneumonia-like symptoms in very young children or in adults older than 65 are a cause for concern. Also, pneumonia can cause permanent lung damage if left untreated for too long. And always seek immediate care if you experience chest pain or have breathing difficulties.
Ginger Or Turmeric Tea
A persistent cough can result in chest pain. Drinking warm tea made with fresh ginger or turmeric root may help reduce this pain.
The roots of both of these plants can have a natural anti-inflammatory effect in the body.
Chop up a thumb sized piece of either root and boil it in a pint or so of water. If a person prefers strong tea, they can boil it for longer or add more of the root. If the flavor is too sharp, they can try adding a spoonful of honey.
What Kind Of Ct Scan Do You Need For Pneumonia
CT scan. If your pneumonia isnt clearing as quickly as expected, your doctor may recommend a chest CT scan to obtain a more detailed image of your lungs. Pleural fluid culture. A fluid sample is taken by putting a needle between your ribs from the pleural area and analyzed to help determine the type of infection.
Most people with viral pneumonia are treated at home. Older adults and people with health problems may need to stay in the hospital. You may need any of the following: Antiviral medicine is given to treat an infection caused by a virus.
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Types Of Pneumonia Tests
Various types of pneumonia tests may be performed based on a patients symptoms and overall health. In most cases, initial testing for pneumonia involves a physical examination, medical history review, and a chest x-ray. These steps often allow for an initial diagnosis to be made.
Recommendations for further testing are tailored to a patients situation. In general, patients who have more severe symptoms, may require hospitalization, or who are at higher risk of complications are more likely to undergo additional pneumonia testing.
The following sections provide details about the different types of tests that may be involved in the diagnosis and evaluation of pneumonia.
Key Points About Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, and theyre grouped by the cause. The main types of pneumonia are bacterial, viral, and mycoplasma pneumonia.
A cough that produces green, yellow, or bloody mucus is the most common symptom of pneumonia. Other symptoms include fever, shaking chills, shortness of breath, low energy, and extreme tiredness.
Pneumonia can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical exam. Tests used to look at the lungs, blood tests, and tests done on the sputum you cough up may also be used.
Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have. Antibiotics are used for bacterial pneumonia. It may also speed recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia and some special cases. Most viral pneumonias dont have a specific treatment and just get better on their own. Other treatment may include a healthy diet, more fluids, rest, oxygen therapy, and medicine for pain, cough, and fever control.
Most people with pneumonia respond well to treatment, but pneumonia can cause serious lung and infection problems. It can even be deadly.
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What To Expect At Home
You will still have symptoms of pneumonia after you leave the hospital.
- Your cough will slowly get better over 7 to 14 days.
- Sleeping and eating may take up to a week to return to normal.
- Your energy level may take 2 weeks or more to return to normal.
You will need to take time off work. For a while, you might not be able to do other things that you are used to doing.
Complications Caused By Pneumonia
Pneumonia can sometimes have complications. They include:
- pleurisy where the pleura, the thin linings between your lungs and ribcage, become inflamed, leading to chest pain. If you have pleurisy, you are more likely to develop fluid on the lungs.
- fluid on the lungs – about 1 in 10 people with pneumonia develop fluid around the lung, called a pleural effusion which can become infected. This may require a sample of the fluid to be taken by inserting a needle between the ribs under local anaesthetic, and if infected is likely to need a longer course of antibiotics. Occasionally, a tube is inserted into the lung to remove fluid as well.
- a lung abscess a rare complication thats mostly seen in people with a serious pre-existing illness or history of alcohol misuse.
- blood poisoning, also called septicaemia – this is where infection spreads from the lungs to the blood stream. This can cause low blood pressure and a severe illness that might need intensive care treatment.
- respiratory failure this is where pneumonia causes low levels of oxygen in the blood even in people given oxygen. This might also require intensive care treatment.
The vast majority of people recover from pneumonia and return to good health. However, pneumonia can be very serious and some people with severe pneumonia dont survive, despite the best available care. Those who are elderly or have other health problems are most at risk of severe or fatal pneumonia.
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