Saturday, October 1, 2022

Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Effective

What Is Prevnar 13

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA

In 2009, the vaccine was introduced for use in infants and young children in Europe. Its now allowed in more than 120 countries across the globe. Prevnar 13 is approved for use in adults 50 years of age and older in more than 90 countries, and is also approved in the U.S. and European Union for use in older children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years.

Prevnar 13 was licensed by the FDA under an accelerated approval process to address an unmet medical need in older adults. As a requirement of the accelerated approval pathway, Pfizer conducted CAPiTA to verify clinical benefit.

Prevnar 13 is also known as Prevenar 13, its name in many overseas markets.

Who Should Get The Vaccine

People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.

Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.

If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.

The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.

People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.

Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.

People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.

How Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work

Like all vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines work by showing the immune system a version of the microbe, or a part of it, that is responsible for the infection. The pneumococcal vaccine contains part of the pneumococcus bacterias outer shell, made of molecules called polysaccharides. The immune system learns to recognize it, attack it, and defend the body against it, should it ever come into contact with the real bacteria.

The body does this by making antibodies against the shell of the pneumococcus bacteria. These antibodies stay in your bloodstream as part of your immune system. If you are exposed to pneumococci in the future, the antibodies recognize the bacterias shell and launch a targeted defense.

There are strains of pneumococcus, so the vaccines are made up of molecules from many of those strains.

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What Are The Side Effects

Vaccines are very safe. It is much safer to get the vaccine than to get pneumococcal disease.

Many people have no side effects from the vaccines. For those that do, side effects are usually mild and last 1 to 2 days . Serious side effects are very rare.

It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is a very rare possibility, between one in 100,000 and one in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This may include hives, difficulty breathing, or swelling of the throat, tongue or lips. Should this reaction occur, your health care provider is prepared to treat it. Emergency treatment includes injection of epinephrine and transfer by ambulance to the nearest emergency department. If symptoms develop after you leave the clinic, call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number.

It is important to always report serious or unexpected reactions to your immunizing health care provider.

Where Can You Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

Mythbusters

Once you know one of the pneumonia vaccines is right for you or your family, you may wonder where to get it. These vaccines are commonly available at medical offices and hospitals, so you might be able to get one where you see your healthcare provider. If they do not have it, many pharmacies, including CVS and Walgreens locations, have the vaccine. Your local health department is also a good resource and often gives vaccinations.

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Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.

The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.

The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.

What Is A Pneumonia Vaccine

Now that you know the primary causes of pneumonia, you must be curious to learn more about the ways to handle it. A pneumonia vaccine helps prevent the risks of developing pneumonia. The following kinds of this vaccine are commonly seen in healthcare settings.

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

The primary purpose of taking a pneumonia vaccine is to prevent getting pneumonia. Unfortunately, there is no complete guarantee that this vaccine can protect you from getting pneumonia. However, it is undoubtedly one of the most vital precautions to strengthen your immune system for fighting against the disease.

If you wonder how to treat pneumonia, you should know that prevention is always better than cure. One of the primary benefits of this vaccine is that its PCV13 variant can protect you against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria. Such bacteria are potential causes of severe infection in children and adults. Moreover, the PPSV23 variant can defend you against 23 types of pneumonia bacteria.

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What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.

How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.

Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.

Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.

Also of Interest

Patients In Health Care Institutions

There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults

Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.

Also Check: Icd 10 Code For Pneumonia Vaccine

Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

The two types are:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

According to the

  • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
  • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

Effectiveness Of The 23

  • Hannah Lawrence,

    Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Writing original draft, Writing review & editing

    Affiliations Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

  • Roles Data curation, Investigation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom

  • Vadsala Baskaran,

    Roles Investigation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliations Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom

  • Roles Investigation, Writing review & editing

    Affiliation Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton NHS Foundation Trust, Derby, United Kingdom

  • Affiliation Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham, United Kingdom

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Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

PCV13
helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
  • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
  • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
  • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
  • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
  • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
  • another version of the shot called PCV7
  • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
  • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
  • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
  • are very sick

What You Should Know About Pneumonia

Pneumonia Vaccine May Not Be Necessary for Older Adults

Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs that typically stems from several kinds of germs, most often bacteria and viruses.

Symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly. They include:

  • Fever.
  • Chest pain.
  • Loss of appetite.

Early detection is often challenging because many people with these symptoms assume they have a cold or the flu.

Its important to also note that the vaccine helps protect against some but not all bacterial pneumonia.

There are dozens of different types of bacterial pneumonia, says Dr. Suri. The vaccine will certainly reduce your risk of the most common bacterial pneumonia.

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Signs Of Pneumonia Vaccine Side Effects

As with any vaccination, there are potential side effects of the pneumonia vaccination. Common side effects include:

Injection site soreness

As with most shots and vaccinations, you may experience pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site .

Less than 1% of people who receive a pneumonia vaccine develop a fever. If your temperature is above 100.4 F , you have a fever.

Irritability

Irritability is a feeling of agitation. When you’re feeling irritable, you’re more likely to become frustrated or upset. In children, this may present as fussiness.

Who Shouldn’t Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

If you don’t meet the recommendations for the pneumonia vaccine, you really don’t need to get it, pulmonary critical care expert Reynold Panettieri, MD, director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Science at Rutgers University, tells Health. “It’s a risk-benefit ratio,” he explains. “If you’re under 65 and are otherwise healthy, your likelihood of developing pneumococcal pneumonia is unlikely,” he says.

But there are some people who explicitly shouldn’t get the vaccines, per the CDC. Those include:

  • People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to PCV13, PPSV23, an early pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7, the DTaP vaccine, or any parts of these vaccines. Talk to your doctor if you’re unsure.
  • People who are currently ill.

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What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccines

PCV13 and PPSV23 can both cause mild side effects. Both pneumococcal vaccines are given in the arm and are injected into muscle. Children and adults may experience arm soreness, swelling, or redness where the shot was injected. Other side effects that may occur in adults include:

  • Fatigue

  • Drowsiness

PCV13 should not be given to children at the same time as the annual flu shot, because of an increased risk of . These seizures are caused by a high fever and occur in up to 5% of children under 5. They can be scary, but dont cause any long-term health problems.

The good news is that the side effects will resolve on their own within a few days.

What Are The Side Effects Of A Pneumonia Vaccine

Pfizer’s Prevnar 13 Found Effective in Ages 50 and Older

When it comes to the side effects of the pneumonia vaccine, these are usually mild. However, you can face some of the following issues after getting a vaccine.

  • Swelling or soreness on the skin
  • Fever
  • Sore muscles
  • Loss of appetite

These are the commonly found side effects of the pneumonia vaccine in adults. If you face these, you should consult your doctor and take measures against them.

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Interaction With Haemophilus Influenzae

Historically, has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be found in the human upper respiratory system. A study of competition revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with . However, in a study adding both bacteria to the of a within two weeks, only H. influenzae survives further analysis showed that neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae.

Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and should be started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Pneumococcal vaccines may be given, regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccines, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with inadequate immunization records.

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Do I Need To Pay For Pneumococcal Immunisation

Vaccines covered by the National Immunisation Program are free for people who are eligible. See the NIP Schedule to find out which vaccines you or your family are eligible to receive.

Eligible people get the vaccine for free, but your health care provider may charge a consultation fee for the visit. You can check this when you make your appointment.

If you are not eligible for free vaccine, you may need to pay for it. The cost depends on the type of vaccine, the formula and where you buy it from. Your immunisation provider can give you more information.

While pneumonia is usually mild, it can have deadly consequences for portions of the population, especially people over the age of 65. In fact, Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that causes pneumococcal disease, is the No. 1 cause of pneumonia worldwide.

The vaccine indirectly protects adults by stopping children from spreading the bacteria

But this bacteria doesnt just cause pneumonia. Its a nasty human pathogen that can invade the brain and bloodstream, leading to ear infections, sinus infections, even meningitis, says Dr. Michael Ben-Aderet, associate medical director of Hospital Epidemiology at Cedars-Sinai.

It can make people very sick, and its a key cause of death among the elderly.

In 2017, an estimated 3,600 people died from invasive pneumococcal disease in the U.S. alone.

Know The Facts About The Pneumonia Vaccine

Pneumonia Vaccine: It Could Be a Lifesaver

Just as with a flu shot, and now the COVID-19 vaccines, some people believe that getting a pneumococcal vaccine will cause them to come down with the disease or experience long-term side effects.

This is absolutely not true, Dr. Suri says.

Not only will the pneumococcal vaccine help reduce the risk of contracting certain types of bacterial pneumonia, it also guards against serious consequences resulting from the flu and severe infections, such as .

For young children, older adults, smokers and those with other risk factors, the vaccine is a healthy choice to make.

I cant see any reason to avoid this vaccine and every reason to get it, she says.

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