Saturday, October 1, 2022

Two Types Of Pneumonia Shots

Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA
PCV13
helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
  • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
  • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
  • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
  • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
  • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
  • another version of the shot called PCV7
  • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
  • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
  • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
  • are very sick

Immunologic Basis And Host Response To Pneumococcal Vaccines

S. pneumoniae is a complex bacterium with 92 different polysaccharide capsular serotypes identified to date . The human airway uses numerous mechanisms to protect from colonization and invasive pneumococcal infection. Innate immune defenses, such as mucociliary escalator and an array of pattern recognition receptors that recognize bacterial proteins, help with the initial protection against the bacteria . The antiphagocytic bacterial capsule is considered to be the most important determinant of pneumococcal virulence and is important for colonization of the nasopharynx . Pneumococcal cell wall fragments and capsular polysaccharides are recognized by antibodies that bind and activate the complement system . All pneumococci serotypes can establish a carrier state and colonize in the human nasopharynx during the first few months of life. Children are the main reservoir, with colonization rates of up to 50%.

Pneumococcus bacteria and virulence factors including capsular polysaccharide. Immune response to polysaccharide and protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. MHC=major histocompatibility complex TCR=T cell receptor. Adapted by permission from Reference .

Polysaccharide-based vaccines have been shown to result in decreased memory B-cell frequency, whereas conjugate protein-based vaccines increase serotype-specific memory B-cell responses, highlighting that these vaccines induce important T-celldependent memory responses .

Trivalent And Quadrivalent Shots Made With Adjuvant

These shots, called Fluad and Fluad Quadrivalent, are another option for flu vaccines that are approved for people ages 65 and older. It includes an ingredient called adjuvant, which also creates a stronger immune system response.

These flu vaccines are slightly different because they protect against four different strains of the flu virus .

Because of this, these vaccinations can provide broader protection from infection.

Options are below.

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Who Shouldn’t Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

If you don’t meet the recommendations for the pneumonia vaccine, you really don’t need to get it, pulmonary critical care expert Reynold Panettieri, MD, director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Science at Rutgers University, tells Health. “It’s a risk-benefit ratio,” he explains. “If you’re under 65 and are otherwise healthy, your likelihood of developing pneumococcal pneumonia is unlikely,” he says.

But there are some people who explicitly shouldn’t get the vaccines, per the CDC. Those include:

  • People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to PCV13, PPSV23, an early pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7, the DTaP vaccine, or any parts of these vaccines. Talk to your doctor if you’re unsure.
  • People who are currently ill.

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Adults At High Risk Of Ipd

Should you get the pneumonia vaccination? [Infographic]

Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.

Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.

Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.

Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.

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Do You Need To Get Both Vaccines

Most people do not, but some may, depending on age and other health conditions.

Children

All healthy children should get PCV13, and children with certain health conditions should also receive PPSV23. When both vaccines are needed, they are given 8 weeks apart, and PCV13 is given first.

Adults aged 65 and over

All adults aged 65 and older should get PPSV23. If you are a healthy adult over 65, you should talk to your healthcare provider about whether you need PCV13.

PCV13 used to be recommended for all adults over age 65, but the ACIP recently changed its recommendations. This is because, as more children have been vaccinated with PCV13, the types of pneumococci that this vaccine protects against are less likely to spread and infect older adults. PCV13 can still be given, and your healthcare provider can help you decide if it is right for you.

Adults younger than 65

For adults younger than 65, PPSV23 is recommended in certain situations. If you smoke or have a chronic illness, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or liver disease, you should get PPSV23 at a younger age. Adults with other conditions, like a weakened immune system, should have both vaccines before age 65.

Messenger Rna Vaccinesalso Called Mrna Vaccines

Researchers have been studying and working with mRNA vaccines for decades and this technology was used to make some of the COVID-19 vaccines. mRNA vaccines make proteins in order to trigger an immune response. mRNA vaccines have several benefits compared to other types of vaccines, including shorter manufacturing times and, because they do not contain a live virus, no risk of causing disease in the person getting vaccinated.

mRNA vaccines are used to protect against:

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Can The Shots Cause Pneumonia Or Make You Sick

No. The pneumonia vaccines dont contain live bacteria, so they cant cause an infection. They wont cause pneumonia or other pneumococcal diseases. If you dont feel well after your vaccine, you should discuss your symptoms with your healthcare provider to find out whether they are related to the vaccine or caused by another illness.

How Much Does It Cost

There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults

For adults over age 65 who have Medicare Part B, both pneumococcal vaccines are completely covered at no cost, as long as they are given a year apart.

If you have private insurance or Medicaid, you should check with your individual plan to find out if the vaccines are covered. Usually, routinely recommended vaccinations, like the pneumococcal vaccines, are covered by insurance companies without any copays or coinsurance. This means you can often get the vaccines at little or no cost.

If you need to pay out of pocket for the vaccines, you can review prices for PCV13 and PPSV23.

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What Are The Most Common Side Effects Of Pneumovax 23 And Prevnar 13

Side effects with pneumococcal vaccines are usually mild and go away on their own within a few days.

Common side effects of Prevnar 13 include:

  • Injection site pain

  • Fever

Common side effects of Pneumovax 23 include:

  • Injection site pain

  • Fever

  • Muscle aches

  • Fatigue

Be sure to talk with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms for a prolonged period of time.

What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccines

PCV13 and PPSV23 can both cause mild side effects. Both pneumococcal vaccines are given in the arm and are injected into muscle. Children and adults may experience arm soreness, swelling, or redness where the shot was injected. Other side effects that may occur in adults include:

  • Fatigue

  • Drowsiness

PCV13 should not be given to children at the same time as the annual flu shot, because of an increased risk of . These seizures are caused by a high fever and occur in up to 5% of children under 5. They can be scary, but dont cause any long-term health problems.

The good news is that the side effects will resolve on their own within a few days.

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Where Can I Find These Vaccines

Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.

PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:

  • Pediatric and family practice offices
  • Community health clinics

If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:

  • Pharmacies
  • Health departments
  • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.

When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

Should Adults Over 65 Get Prevnar 13

Pneumonia shots: Coverage, costs, and eligibility

PCV13 is still a safe and effective vaccine, especially if you have medical conditions or live in a place with high risk of exposure to pneumococcal strains, such as a nursing home or long-term care facility. Doctors and their patients need to consider both the exposure risk and personal risks for each patient to decide whether Prevnar 13 is necessary. If you have questions about either vaccine, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Find discounts on pneumonia vaccines from ScriptSave WellRx.

According to the CDC, only about 70% of adults aged 65 and older ever receive a pneumococcal vaccination, either PCV13 or PPSV23. Hopefully, the new recommendations will encourage more people to get vaccinated since healthy adults now only need a single dose rather than two doses.

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Who Should Get Prevnar 13 And Pneumovax 23

Prevnar 13 was developed for infants and children. The CDC recommends that all infants and children younger than 2 years of age get Prevnar 13. Prevnar 13 involves a series of four doses of the vaccine given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and sometime between 12 and 15 months of age.

Pneumovax 23 is the vaccine used in adults. It does not work in infants and children under 2 years old.

Most adults do not need a pneumococcal vaccine until they reach the age of 65. Once a person turns 65 years old, the CDC recommends Pneumovax 23.

The same is true for any adult who smokes or has one or more of these chronic illnesses:

  • Chronic heart disease

  • Chronic lung disease, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • Diabetes

  • Chronic liver disease

Coverage And Cost Comparison Of Prevnar 13 Vs Pneumovax 23

Insurance coverage varies on both Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23. If you or your child receive a dose in your healthcare providers office, it may be covered under your medical insurance. Most pharmacies now provide vaccination services, including pneumonia vaccines, to adults, so you can conveniently get your vaccine at your local drugstore . Medicare usually does not cover the cost of either vaccine.

Without insurance, a dose of Prevnar 13 costs about $240, and a dose of Pneumovax 23 costs about $135. You can get Prevnar 13 about $195 and Pneumovax 23 for $109 by using a SingleCare discount card or coupon.

The most common side effects associated with Pneumovax 23 are:

  • Injection-site pain, soreness, or tenderness
  • Injection-site swelling or induration
  • Headache
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Muscle pain

This is not a full list of side effectsother side effects may occur. Contact your healthcare provider for a full list of side effects that may occur with Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax 23.

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Side Effects Of The Flu Vaccine

Similar to other types of vaccinations, theres a risk of side effects with the flu shot. Common side effects may include tenderness or redness at the injection site.

In addition, some people experience mild flu-like symptoms for 1 to 2 days after vaccination. This can include weakness, body aches, or a fever, but this isnt the flu.

You might have issues if youre severely allergic to eggs or another ingredient in the vaccine.

Signs of a serious reaction include:

  • breathing difficulty
  • dizziness

Life threatening allergic reactions are rare after getting the flu shot, though.

Symptoms of a reaction occur within a few hours of vaccination. If you do have symptoms of an allergic reaction, seek immediate medical attention.

The CDC recommends people with an egg allergy still get a flu shot. If you have a severe egg allergy, you may consider getting your flu shot in a medical setting that can treat allergic reactions. You can also request a vaccine that doesnt contain egg protein.

You may have to avoid vaccination if youre allergic to another ingredient in the vaccine.

In rare cases, Guillain-Barré syndrome may develop within days or weeks of a vaccination.

Guillain- Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder where the bodys immune system attacks the peripheral nervous system. This condition can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Among those who receive a vaccination, theres only

How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works

Pneumonia Explained! Symptoms, Diagnosis, Labs, Treatment

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.

They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.

More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.

The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

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How Often Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Given

Babies receive the pneumococcal vaccine as three separate injections, at 2 months, 4 months and 12-13 months.

People over-65 only need a single pneumococcal vaccination which will protect for life. It is not given annually like the flu jab.

People with a long term health condition may need just a single one-off pneumococcal vaccination or five-yearly vaccination depending on their underlying health problem.

Subunit Recombinant Polysaccharide And Conjugate Vaccines

Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines use specific pieces of the germlike its protein, sugar, or capsid .

Because these vaccines use only specific pieces of the germ, they give a very strong immune response thats targeted to key parts of the germ. They can also be used on almost everyone who needs them, including people with weakened immune systems and long-term health problems.

One limitation of these vaccines is that you may need booster shots to get ongoing protection against diseases.

These vaccines are used to protect against:

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Who Should Get Immunised Against Pneumococcal Disease

Vaccinations

Anyone who wants to protect themselves against pneumococcal disease can talk to their doctor about getting immunised.

Pneumococcal immunisation is recommended for:

  • infants and children aged under 5 years
  • non-Indigenous adults aged 70 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 5 years living in Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 50 years and over without medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
  • infants under 12 months diagnosed with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease
  • people over 12 months with certain medical risk conditions for pneumococcal disease

There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine provided free under the National Immunisation Program for different age groups and circumstances:

Refer to the NIP schedule for vaccine dosage information. Your doctor or vaccination provider will advise if you or your child have a specified medical risk condition.

Refer to the pneumococcal recommendations in the Australian Immunisation Handbook for more information.

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