What Are The Complications Of Pneumonia
Anyone can experience complications from pneumonia. However, people in high-risk groups are more likely to develop complications, including:
- Breathing difficulties: Pneumonia can make breathing difficult. Pneumonia plus an existing lung disorder can make breathing even more difficult. Breathing difficulties may require a hospital stay to receive oxygen therapy or breathing and healing assistance with the use of a breathing machine .
- Fluid buildup in the lungs : Pneumonia can cause a buildup in the fluid between the membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity. It is a serious condition that makes breathing difficult. Pleural effusion can be treated by draining excess fluid with a catheter, chest tube or by surgery.
- Bacteria in the bloodstream : The bacteria that cause pneumonia can leave your lungs and enter your bloodstream, spreading the infection to other organs. This condition is treated with antibiotics.
- Lung abscess. A lung abscess is a pus-filled cavity in the lung that is caused by a bacterial infection. It can be treated by draining the pus with a long needle or removing it by surgery.
Preventing Pneumonia In Children
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends vaccinating children with the PVC13 vaccine. It helps prevent pneumonia from developing in children 2 years old and younger. The â13â in the PVC13 vaccine means it defends children against 13 variations of the pneumococcal disease. You should discuss the vaccine option with your childâs healthcare provider. Itâs also a good idea to verify that your child is up-to-date on all other recommended vaccines for their age group.
Children can start receiving doses of the PVC13 vaccine when they are two months old. After that, they should receive booster shots periodically until they turn 15 months old. It only takes one dose of PVC13 to immunize children between the ages of 2 and 5 who have not previously received the vaccine. The same goes for children aged 2 to 18 who have certain medical conditions and have never gotten a PVC13 vaccination.
The pneumococcal polysaccharide pneumonia vaccine is also recommended for children between the ages of 2 and 5 who have a higher risk of developing pneumonia, including those who have:
- Heart disease
Pneumococcal Vaccine For Adults
Adults can have the pneumococcal vaccine or “pneumo jab” for free if they’re in a high-risk group for developing a pneumococcal infection.
If you think you could be eligible for the pneumococcal vaccine, speak to your GP or practice nurse to arrange an appointment.
Healthy adults usually only need one dose of the pneumo jab. However, if you’ve a weakened immune system or spleen disorder, you may need additional booster doses. Your GP can advise you about this.
After you’ve had the pneumo jab, you may experience some pain and inflammation at the site of the injection. This should last no longer than three days. Less commonly, some people report the symptoms of a mild fever. Again, this should pass quickly.
Read more about potential side effects of the pneumococcal vaccine.
Pneumococcal Vaccine For Babies
They’ve 3 doses, which are given:
- at 8 weeks
- at 16 weeks
- between 12 and 13 months of age
The pneumococcal vaccine for babies is entirely safe, although around one baby in 10 will have some redness and swelling at the site of the injection, and symptoms of a mild fever. However, these side effects will pass quickly.
Speak to your GP or health visitor if you are not sure whether your child has received their pneumococcal immunisation.
When Can I Return To Work School And Regular Activities If I Have Pneumonia
You typically can resume your normal activities if your symptoms are gone, mild or improving and you do not have new or worsening:
- Shortness of breath or tiredness
- Chest pain
- Mucus, fever or cough
If you are generally healthy, most people feel well enough to return to previous activities in about a week. However, it may take about a month to feel totally back to normal.
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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement
The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .
For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.
NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.
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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Bacterial Versus Viral Pneumonia In Adults
Symptoms of pneumonia can range from mild sometimes called walking pneumonia to severe. How serious your case of pneumonia depends on the particular germ causing pneumonia, your overall health, and your age.
Bacterial pneumonia: Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop gradually or suddenly. Symptoms include:
- High fever
Additional symptoms appearing about a day later include:
- Higher fever
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When To Seek Emergency Medical Advice
The most serious type of pneumococcal infection is bacterial meningitis, which requires immediate admission to hospital for emergency treatment.
Bacterial meningitis has a number of early warning signs that can occur earlier than the other symptoms.
- pain in the muscles, joints or limbs such as in the legs or hands
- shivering or unusually cold hands and feet
- blue lips and pale or blotchy skin
How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person
Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Pneumococcal Disease
Pneumococcal disease infects different parts of the body, so symptoms depend on the part of the body that is infected.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common severe form of pneumococcal disease. It starts with high fever, cough, and stabbing chest pains. Older adults may experience confusion or low alertness rather than the other symptoms.
Pneumococcal meningitis include symptoms such as fever, stiff neck, headache, sensitivity to light, and confusion. Babies may experience low alertness, poor eating and drinking, and vomiting.
Pneumococcal bacteremia include symptoms such as fever, chills, and low alertness. Sepsis is a life-threatening problem that can occur as a result of infection. Without timely treatment, sepsis can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death.
Pneumococcus bacteria causes many middle ear infections, and the symptoms include ear pain, fever, red and swollen ear drum, and sleepiness.
Signs Of Pneumonia In Children
Pneumonia typically spreads from person to person. Because children spend more time indoors in cooler or cold weather, they may be more exposed to the illness during fall, winter, and early spring. The clothes your child wears or the temperature outside do not stop them from getting pneumonia.
The symptoms of pneumonia can vary from child to child. Your childâs symptoms and their severity can depend on whether bacteria or a virus caused the illness. Children infected by bacteria typically present symptoms like:
- Lack of appetite
- Unusual tiredness
Itâs often hard to tell whether bacteria or a virus causes your childâs pneumonia. If the cause is a virus, then breathing problems may come on more slowly. Your child may start wheezing and develop a worsening cough. Symptoms that often show up with viral pneumonia include:
- Rapid or harsh breathing
- General fussiness
Some parents mistake the initial signs of pneumonia as a cold or other illness. If your childâs symptoms get worse, take them in for medical treatment.
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What Should I Or My Family Members Do If We Travel Out Of The Country
- Pneumococcal disease occurs around the world. It is more common in developing countries. You may be at higher risk if you spend time in crowded settings or come in close contact with children in countries where pneumococcal vaccine is not routinely used. Make sure that you are vaccinated according to the recommendations above.
- Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water aren’t available, use hand sanitizer. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze. Also, avoid close contact and sharing cups or eating utensils with people who are sick.
Travel and pneumococcal disease:
Who Is At Risk For Pneumococcal Disease
Everyone is at risk for pneumococcal disease. Children younger than 6 years of age and adults 65 years and older should get pneumococcal vaccinations. Those who are between 6 to 64 years of age may need pneumococcal vaccinations if they have certain medical conditions that put them at higher risk.
Children at higher risk of pneumococcal disease include those:
- younger than 2 years old
- who attend childcare
- who have certain medical conditions
- with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks
- who are Alaska Native, African American, or American Indian
Adults at risk for pneumococcal disease include those:
- with certain medical conditions
- with a weak immune system due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or damaged/absent spleen
- with cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid leaks
- who currently smoke cigarettes
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Immediate Action Required: Go To A& e Or Phone 999 If:
- you have a blotchy, red rash that does not fade or change colour when you place a glass against it
- you experience drowsiness or confusion
- you have a seizure or fit
- you have an inability to tolerate bright lights known as photophobia
- you have a stiff neck
- you have a rapid breathing rate
- your baby becomes floppy and unresponsive or stiff with jerky movements
- your baby is becoming irritable and not wanting to be held
- your baby is crying unusually
You should dial 999 immediately and request an ambulance if you think you or someone around you has bacterial meningitis.
Causes Of Pneumonia In Children
Children are vulnerable to developing pneumonia from viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Pneumonia often develops as a complication of another disease like the flu or a viral upper respiratory infection. Our nose and throat passageways allow microorganisms to get into our airways and infect the air sacs of our lungs.
Respiratory syncytial virus is a virus often found in children with pneumonia who are 5 years old or younger. Children younger than 1 year old have an increased risk of pneumonia if they are exposed to secondhand smoke. The following conditions can make children more likely to get pneumonia from microorganisms:
- Compromised immune system
- Chronic health issues like cystic fibrosis or asthma
- Lung or airway problems
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What Is The Treatment For Pneumonia
Pneumonia treatment depends on the type of pneumonia, how sick the patient is, the patients age, and if other underlying medical conditions are present.
Mild cases of pneumonia may go away own their own with adequate rest and symptom management. Home treatment for pneumonia may include:
- Getting plenty of rest
- Warm beverages may help open airways
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Pneumonia In Children
The signs and symptoms of pneumonia in children vary from child to child and also depend on your childs age, cause of the infection, and severity of their illness.
Usual symptoms include:
- Cry more than usual. Are restless or more fussy.
Adolescents have the same symptoms as adults, including:
- Difficulty breathing/shortness of breath.
- Chest pain.
Newborns are at greater risk of pneumonia caused by bacteria present in the birth canal. In young children, viruses are the main cause of pneumonia.
Pneumonia caused by bacteria tends to happen suddenly, starting with fever and fast breathing. Symptoms appear more slowly and tend to be less severe when pneumonia is caused by viruses.
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What Is Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Simply put, itâs an infectious, potentially serious bacterial lung disease. The symptoms can hit without warning and can take you out of your routine for weeks. It could even put you in the hospital.
Did you know there is more than one type of pneumonia? Although pneumonia always means an infection of the lungs, there are actually many different types. Two of the most common types are viral and bacterial.
The most common type of bacterial pneumonia is called pneumococcal pneumonia.
Pneumococcal pneumonia can be serious. Symptoms can come on quickly, and can include cough, fatigue, high fever, shaking chills, and chest pain with difficulty breathing. Some symptoms can last weeks or longer.
In severe cases, pneumococcal pneumonia can lead to hospitalization. Or in some cases, even death.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is not a cold or the flu. It is a bacterial lung disease, while the flu and cold are caused by viruses.
In some cases, pneumococcal pneumonia can cause part of your lung to fill up with mucus, making it hard to breathe.
You can catch pneumococcal pneumonia through coughing or close contact. It can strike anywhere, anytimeâand may hit quickly and without warning.
Itâs not just old and unhealthy people who are at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia. If you are 65 or older, you may be at increased risk for pneumococcal pneumonia, even if you are otherwise healthy. Thatâs because as you get older, your immune system becomes less able to respond to infections.
Pneumonia Symptoms And Causes
There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, airborne irritants, and fungi. When these germs enter the lungs, they can overpower the immune system and invade nearby lung tissues, which are very delicate.
Once infected, the air sacs in the lungs become inflamed and fill up with fluid and pus, which causes coughing, fever, chills, and breathing problems.
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When To Contact A Doctor
It is important to contact a doctor if a person believes that they or a member of their family is experiencing symptoms of pneumonia. While some people may be able to recover at home without medical assistance, others may need medication or hospitalization.
People should seek immediate medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:
- breathing difficulties
What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is commonly caused by an infection with a germ. The germ is usually a bacterium or a virus. There are three or four different bacteria that are the most common causes of pneumonia. There is also a well-known group of bacteria that causes pneumonia in about 3 out of 10 cases. They are called atypicals. Other germs such as fungi, yeasts, or protozoa can sometimes also cause pneumonia.
Rarely, non-infective pneumonia is caused by inhaling poisons or chemicals. Many different substances can cause this. They can be in the form of liquids, gases, small particles, dust or fumes.
You may breathe in some bacteria, viruses, or other germs. If you are normally healthy, a small number of germs usually doesnt matter. They will be trapped in your phlegm and killed by your immune system. Sometimes the germs multiply and cause lung infections. This is more likely to happen if you are already in poor health for example:
- If you are frail or elderly.
- If you have a chest disease.
- If you have a low immunity to infection. Low immunity can be caused by such things as alcohol dependence, AIDS, or another serious illness.
However, even healthy people sometimes develop pneumonia.
Pneumonia can sometimes develop after an operation, particularly in the region of your head or neck. Having an anaesthetic can increase the risk.
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Treating Pneumonia In Children
The effectiveness of pneumonia treatment depends on whether the cause was a virus or bacteria. Doctors typically rely on a physical exam and tests, including chest x-rays and blood tests, to diagnose pneumonia. They may request a sputum culture to confirm the presence of a lung infection and use a pulse oximeter to measure your childâs oxygen levels.
If a virus caused a childâs pneumonia, treatment options are more limited. Doctors may recommend rest and medication to keep the childâs fever down if one is present. It’s recommended not to give cough suppressants with codeine or dextromethorphan to children with pneumonia. Coughing helps expel excess mucus and clears the lungs.
Antibiotics can be effective in cases where bacteria cause pneumonia. If your doctor prescribes antibiotics to treat your childâs pneumonia, you should give them the recommended dosage as often as your doctor directs you to. Avoid the temptation to stop using them once your child shows improvement. There may still be bacteria lingering in your childâs lungs, and if you stop giving antibiotics to your child, it may allow for pneumonia to return.