Monday, September 26, 2022

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Pneumonia

Can You Have Pneumonia Without Fever

Knowing the signs and symptoms of pneumonia

A high temperature is a very common symptom of pneumonia however, it is possible to have the illness without a fever. This is more likely to be the case in babies and very young children, and in the elderly.

In people who are older or who have a weakened immune system, pneumonia may cause the body temperature to lower.

What Is The Outlook For Pneumonia

People who are otherwise healthy often recover quickly when given prompt and proper care. However, pneumonia is a serious condition and can be life-threatening if left untreated and especially for those individuals at increased risk for pneumonia.

Even patients who have been successfully treated and have fully recovered may face long-term health issues. Children who have recovered from pneumonia have an increased risk of chronic lung diseases. Adults may experience:

  • General decline in quality of life for months or years

What Are The Complications Of Pneumonia

Anyone can experience complications from pneumonia. However, people in high-risk groups are more likely to develop complications, including:

  • Breathing difficulties: Pneumonia can make breathing difficult. Pneumonia plus an existing lung disorder can make breathing even more difficult. Breathing difficulties may require a hospital stay to receive oxygen therapy or breathing and healing assistance with the use of a breathing machine .
  • Fluid buildup in the lungs : Pneumonia can cause a buildup in the fluid between the membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity. It is a serious condition that makes breathing difficult. Pleural effusion can be treated by draining excess fluid with a catheter, chest tube or by surgery.
  • Bacteria in the bloodstream : The bacteria that cause pneumonia can leave your lungs and enter your bloodstream, spreading the infection to other organs. This condition is treated with antibiotics.
  • Lung abscess. A lung abscess is a pus-filled cavity in the lung that is caused by a bacterial infection. It can be treated by draining the pus with a long needle or removing it by surgery.

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Pneumonia Arising In Institutional Settings

  • Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs contracted during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia tends to be more serious because patients in the hospital already have weakened defense mechanisms, and the infecting organisms are usually more dangerous than those encountered in the community. Hospital patients are particularly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteria, which are resistant to many antibiotics, and staphylococci. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is also called nosocomial pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia . A subgroup of hospital-acquired pneumonia is VAP, a very serious infection contracted by patients on ventilators in hospitals and long-term nursing facilities.
  • Nursing-home acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia acquired in a nursing home or other long-term care facility is the second most common type of infection in these facilities, and it is usually bacterial. This type of pneumonia is sometimes difficult to diagnose as older populations are less likely to report fever, chills, and chest pain. Chest radiography and physical exam are necessary. Sputum sample and antigen tests may be helpful.

The term “healthcare associated pneumonia” is also utilized for all the above types of pneumonia as a group.

Take Steps To Help Your Body Recover

Pneumonia : Symptoms and Treatment

The following steps can help your body recover from pneumonia.

  • Choose heart-healthy foods, because good nutrition helps your body recover.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to help you stay hydrated.
  • Dont drink alcohol or use illegal drugs. Alcohol and illegal drugs weaken your immune system and can raise the risk of complications from pneumonia.
  • Dont smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. Breathing in smoke can worsen your pneumonia. Visit Smoking and Your Heart and Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. For free help quitting smoking, you may call the National Cancer Institutes Smoking Quitline at 1-877-44U-QUIT .
  • Get plenty of sleep. Good quality sleep can help your body rest and improve the response of your immune system. For more information on sleep, visit our How Sleep Works health topic.
  • Get light physical activity. Moving around can help you regain your strength and improve your recovery. However, you may still feel short of breath, and activity that is too strenuous may make you dizzy. Talk to your doctor about how much activity is right for you.
  • Sit upright to help you feel more comfortable and breathe more easily.
  • Take a couple of deep breaths several times a day.

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Urgent Advice: Get Urgent Medical Attention If:

  • you have severe symptoms such as rapid breathing, chest pain or confusion

Pneumonia affects around 8 in 1,000 adults each year. It’s more widespread in autumn and winter.

Pneumonia can affect people of any age. It’s more common and can be more serious in certain groups of people, such as the very young or the elderly. People in these groups may need hospital treatment if they develop pneumonia.

How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person

Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.

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Pneumonia Symptoms In Children

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

The main symptoms of pneumonia in children are a fever and rapid breathing, or difficulty breathing. Their breathing may be laboured, causing the muscles under their ribcage to pull inwards.

Your child might also have:

  • A cough
  • Pain in the chest and abdomen
  • Loss of appetite
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Less energy

If the pneumonia has affected the lower part of the lungs, your child may not have coughing, but rather fever, abdominal pain and vomiting.

Blue or grey lips or nails are a sign that your child is not getting enough oxygen, and that they need medical attention.

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Choosing The Right Antibiotic

Dozens of antibiotics are available for treating pneumonia, but selecting the best drug is sometimes difficult. People with pneumonia need an antibiotic that is effective against the organism causing the disease. When the organism is unknown, “empiric therapy” is given, meaning the doctor chooses which antibiotic is likely to work based on factors such as the person’s age, health, and severity of the illness.

In adults, the choice of antibiotic therapy depends on the severity of infection and site of care. In all cases, the more quickly antibiotic therapy is started once the diagnosis is made, the better the outcomes. In most cases, the organism causing the pneumonia will not be known before antibiotic therapy is started, so the doctor must choose an antibiotic regimen based on history and symptoms. Later, the therapy may be altered when more information becomes available. To determine the appropriate antibiotic, the doctor must first answer a number of questions:

Once an antibiotic has been chosen, there are still difficulties:

  • Individuals respond differently to the same antibiotic, depending on their age, health, size, and other factors.
  • People can be allergic to certain antibiotics, thus requiring alternatives.
  • People may have strains of bacteria that are resistant to certain antibiotics.

Antibiotic Treatments For Community

For a more detailed discussion of the different types of antibiotics, see the “Antibiotic Classes” section below.

Joint guidelines issued in 2019 by the IDSA/ATS recommend that mild CAP in otherwise healthy people be treated with amoxicillin or doxycycline. If the person lives in an area with low S pneumoniae resistance to macrolides, a macrolide antibiotic therapy may also be considered.

The British Thoracic Society recommends amoxicillin, doxycycline, or clarithromycin as alternatives.

Many people with heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or other coexisting conditions may still be treated as outpatients.

People with coexisting conditions should be given a macrolide plus a beta-lactam or a fluoroquinolone as monotherapy. Doxycycline can be given as an alternative to a macrolide. Current recommendations call for at least 5 days of antibiotic therapy. People should have no fever for at least 48 hours and no more than one sign of continuing severe illness before discontinuing antibiotics.

Many cases of CAP are caused by S pneumoniae — Gram-positive bacteria that usually respond to antibiotics known as beta-lactams , and to macrolides. However, resistant strains of S pneumoniae are increasingly common. Most resistant strains respond to fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin , gemifloxacin , or moxifloxacin .

In addition, other important causes of CAP, particularly in younger people, are atypical bacteria, which respond to macrolides , or newer fluoroquinolones.

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What Are The Types Of Pneumonia Found In Babies

Pneumonia is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, or in much rarer cases by fungi or parasites.

Sometimes a combination of different germs can be at play. For example, your baby’s immune system might be weakened by a virus, which makes it easier for a bacterial infection to take hold.

The two most common types of pneumonia in babies are:

A Prompt Diagnosis For Proper Treatment

Pneumonia: What Are the Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

If you suspect your loved one may have pneumonia, you should call a doctor right away. Earlier diagnosis can lead to faster treatment that promotes better outcomes especially for seniors who are at a higher risk of developing serious complications.

A doctor will conduct a physical exam and may order imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment will depend on whether the pneumonia is caused by bacteria, viruses, or other types of infection.

Bacterial pneumonia comes on gradually or suddenly and is typically treated with antibiotics.

Viral pneumonia usually develops over several days and may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, so viral pneumonia is generally treated with supportive care such as increased fluid intake, over-the-counter medications, and rest.

Older adults who experience severe pneumonia symptoms or have other health problems may need to be hospitalized. While in the hospital, treatment may include intravenous antibiotics, respiratory therapy, and oxygen therapy. Doctors will also watch for signs of complications.

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Severe Symptoms Of Pneumonia

In more serious cases of pneumonia, you may start to cough up blood, or feel very confused or drowsy. The NHS advises that you call 999 or attend A& E immediately if either of these symptoms develop. Other symptoms requiring emergency care include:

  • Struggling to breathe
  • Feeling very cold and sweaty, and having blotchy, pale skin
  • A blue tinge to your lips or face
  • A rash that doesnt fade under a glass
  • Suddenly collapsing
  • Stopping normal urination

Sometimes severe pneumonia causes complications such as pleurisy. This where the pleura, the thin lining between the lung and ribs, becomes inflamed. This causes a sharp pain in the chest when breathing in and out.

What Other Problems Can Pneumonia Cause

Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as:

  • Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to .
  • Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs
  • Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity.
  • Respiratory failure

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Warning Signs Your Lungs Are Trying To Give You Post

Your lungs can give you some signs which may signal that something is wrong within your body. Especially when it comes to pneumonia, there are certain signs which may help you spot the condition fast and start the treatment before it is too late for you to save your lungs. According to the experts, the onset of pneumonia can be quite sudden, as in without any prior signals. This is why it is important for you to track the actions of your lungs and understand the abnormalities going on inside your system. COVID-19 wrecks havoc on the lungs, and these conditions thereafter can lead to symptoms such as a phlegm-producing cough. Check out for these subtle, yet warning symptoms of pneumonia post-COVID recovery.

Take Steps To Protect Yourself And Others

Pneumonia, Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment.

The following steps can help you prevent spreading the infection to others around you.

  • Cover your nose and mouth while coughing or sneezing.
  • Get rid of used tissues right away.
  • Limit contact with family and friends.
  • Wash your hands often, especially after coughing and sneezing.

Some people get pneumonia again and again. Tell your doctor if this happens. Return to Prevention to find more strategies to help prevent pneumonia.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Pneumonia In Children

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia in children vary from child to child and also depend on your childs age, cause of the infection, and severity of their illness.

Usual symptoms include:

  • Cry more than usual. Are restless or more fussy.

Adolescents have the same symptoms as adults, including:

  • Cough.
  • Difficulty breathing/shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.

Newborns are at greater risk of pneumonia caused by bacteria present in the birth canal. In young children, viruses are the main cause of pneumonia.

Pneumonia caused by bacteria tends to happen suddenly, starting with fever and fast breathing. Symptoms appear more slowly and tend to be less severe when pneumonia is caused by viruses.

Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria

Our search was designed to identify studies that used a CDR to diagnose, predict, or rule out CAP in the outpatient setting. A study was included if it used a CXR or computed tomography scan as the primary reference standard and was given to all patients enrolled in the study. If the reference standard was used in a random or systematic sample of low-risk CAP patients to minimize radiation exposure, the study was also included. Studies had to gather data prospectively and only studies that recruited adults or adolescents in an outpatient setting were included.

Studies where a majority of the enrolled patients had hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia, were immunocompromised, or that were conducted in special populations such as military or nursing homes were excluded. We excluded studies that were not prospective, such as case-control studies, case reports, and outbreak investigations. An exception was made if the case-control study enrolled symptomatic patients prospectively, such as a consecutive series where patients with similar symptoms but with and without CAP were matched.

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What Is Klebsiella Spp Infection

Bacteria belonging to the genus Klebsiella frequently cause human nosocomial infections. In particular, the most medically important Klebsiella species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, accounts for a significant proportion of nosocomial urinary tract infections, pneumonias, sepsis, and soft tissue infections.

What Are The Signs Of Pneumonia

Pneumonia in children and infants

Keep in mind that the signs of pneumonia must be detected as soon as possible to avoid any kind of further complications. These signs may differ from mild to severe, largely depending on factors like the type of germ causing the infection, the babyâs age and his overall immunity. Talking about mild signs and symptoms, these often exhibit similar symptoms to those of a cold or flu. But in the case of pneumonia, these symptoms last for a longer period of time.

In case your little one is showing the following signs, you must call your healthcare provider immediately:

  • High Fever – A fever that exceeds 102°F and is accompanied by chills

  • Coughing – Wet cough âmucusâ directed from the lungs .

  • Fatigue – Feeling weak lack of energy

  • Fast or Laboured Breathing – Breathing patterns would be rapid but shallow. directing from the stomach instead of the chest, accompanied by wheezing.

  • Pale Skin – The skin around the lips and face start turning blue .

  • Pain – Depending on the infected part, he will experience pain in the lung or the abdomen. Especially when coughing or breathing deeply.

  • Stomach Troubles – Feeling nauseous, vomiting, or dealing with episodes of diarrhoea.

  • Loss Of Appetite – Consuming less food than usual.

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What Exactly Is Dog Pneumonia

To understand pneumonia in dogs, its important to first discuss the two parts of the respiratory system. These two parts will be referred to as the upper and lower tracts.

The upper tract consists of the nose, nasal cavities, throat, and windpipe. The lower tract consists of the tiny airways known as bronchi and bronchioles and the alveoli, which are small air sacs deep in your lung tissue where oxygen exchange occurs.

Technically speaking, pneumonia is when the lower respiratory tract is inflamed. Sometimes, pneumonia is used as a blanket term to refer to dog inflammation in either the upper or lower respiratory tract.

This article will be using pneumonia to mean the more serious of the two conditions, inflammation of the bronchi, bronchioles, and lung tissues .

How Can I Tell If I Have Pneumonia Versus The Common Cold Or The Flu

Do I have a cold or could it be the flu or even pneumonia? Its tough to tell the difference but critical to know when to seek medical care

Watch for these ongoing symptoms that occur in pneumonia:

  • Serious congestion or chest pain.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • A fever of 102 or higher.
  • Coughing that produces pus.

Pneumonia symptoms last longer than cold and flu. If your symptoms arent severe, its okay to try such home remedies as getting more rest, drinking more fluids and taking some over-the-counter medicines and see what happens. But if you dont see improvement in your symptoms after three to five days, or if you are experiencing more serious symptoms such as dizziness or severe difficulty breathing, see your healthcare provider. Dont let it go. Pneumonia-like symptoms in very young children or in adults older than 65 are a cause for concern. Also, pneumonia can cause permanent lung damage if left untreated for too long. And always seek immediate care if you experience chest pain or have breathing difficulties.

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