Saturday, October 1, 2022

What Are The Types Of Pneumonia Vaccines

Do You Need To Get Both Vaccines

Pneumonia Vaccine: Clearing Up the Confusion – Gerald Brown, PA

Most people do not, but some may, depending on age and other health conditions.

Children

All healthy children should get PCV13, and children with certain health conditions should also receive PPSV23. When both vaccines are needed, they are given 8 weeks apart, and PCV13 is given first.

Adults aged 65 and over

All adults aged 65 and older should get PPSV23. If you are a healthy adult over 65, you should talk to your healthcare provider about whether you need PCV13.

PCV13 used to be recommended for all adults over age 65, but the ACIP recently changed its recommendations. This is because, as more children have been vaccinated with PCV13, the types of pneumococci that this vaccine protects against are less likely to spread and infect older adults. PCV13 can still be given, and your healthcare provider can help you decide if it is right for you.

Adults younger than 65

For adults younger than 65, PPSV23 is recommended in certain situations. If you smoke or have a chronic illness, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or liver disease, you should get PPSV23 at a younger age. Adults with other conditions, like a weakened immune system, should have both vaccines before age 65.

Pneumonia Vaccination For Children:

Ever wondered why children are more susceptible to pneumonia than others? Underprivileged children often suffer from malnutrition, low birth weight, indoor air pollution, overcrowding, and lack of vaccination for measles, making them prone to several types of infections. Hence the World Health Organisation and Centres for disease control suggest that children under two years of age should receive a pneumonia vaccine.

The government of India primarily funds for a vaccination with support from UNICEF, WHO, BMGF and Gavi. The Universal Immunisation Programme of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare targets to reduce the severity and death of preventable diseases. Since a vaccine for pneumonia is the need of the hour, the UIP provides vaccines free of cost to children.

What Medical Conditions Require Pneumonia Vaccine

The pneumococcal vaccine protects against serious and potentially fatal pneumococcal infections. Its also known as the pneumonia vaccine. Pneumococcal infections are caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and can lead to pneumonia, blood poisoning and meningitis.

Read Also: Does Medicare Cover The Pneumonia Shot

Who Should Get Vaccinated Against It

Three vaccines are now available to help prevent pneumococcal disease. Before the FDA approval of Prevnar 20, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of two other pneumococcal vaccines and . You can read more about them here.

The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all children under 2 years old and all adults at least 65 years old. Although pneumococcal disease can affect people of all ages, younger children and older adults are most at risk.

Depending on vaccination history and the presence of certain medical conditions, other people may also need to receive pneumococcal vaccinations. If you arent sure of your pneumococcal vaccination history, speak to your healthcare provider.

How Much Does It Cost

20

For adults over age 65 who have Medicare Part B, both pneumococcal vaccines are completely covered at no cost, as long as they are given a year apart.

If you have private insurance or Medicaid, you should check with your individual plan to find out if the vaccines are covered. Usually, routinely recommended vaccinations, like the pneumococcal vaccines, are covered by insurance companies without any copays or coinsurance. This means you can often get the vaccines at little or no cost.

If you need to pay out of pocket for the vaccines, you can review prices for PCV13 and PPSV23.

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Which Pneumonia Vaccine Is Best

There is no best pneumonia vaccine. The two available pneumonia vaccines are different, and which one is best for you depends on how old you are and whether or not you have certain medical conditions.

The main difference between Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23 is the number of pneumococcus strains the vaccine protects against.

Who Should Avoid Receiving The Pneumonia Vaccine

Vaccines for pneumonia are available for all, regardless of age and medical conditions. However, it would be best to consider certain factors that might affect your possibility of receiving your dose of vaccine. In most cases, you may only need to postpone receiving the vaccine for the time being.

  • Allergic Reactions To Vaccines: This depends on what and how severe the reaction is. If it is just a mild rash, your physician may consider it safe to inject the vaccine. Instead, if you or your child have experienced severe or anaphylactic reactions to the pneumonia vaccine or any vaccine for that matter, it may be unsafe to receive the vaccination.
  • Fever At The Vaccination Appointment: Tell your physician if you or your child are having high temperatures during the scheduled time for vaccination. Your physician might help postpone your dosing date until you or your child recover.
  • Pregnancy And Breastfeeding: Pneumonia vaccine is safe to receive during pregnancy and breastfeeding. However, it is better to wait until you have delivered your baby unless your physician feels that the benefits outweigh the risks for you and your child.

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How Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Made

Like the Hib vaccine, the pneumococcal vaccine is made from the sugar coating of the bacteria. Antibodies directed against the pneumococcal polysaccharide protect the child without having to take the risk that their first encounter with natural pneumococcus will result in permanent disabilities or death.

Unfortunately, children less than 2 years old don’t develop very good immune responses to this polysaccharide alone. So the pneumococcal vaccine was made in a manner similar to the Hib vaccine . The pneumococcal polysaccharide is linked to a harmless protein. This version of the vaccine is referred to as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Once linked, young children are able to make an immune response to the polysaccharide. The big difference between the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine is the number of different types of polysaccharides that need to be included in the vaccine. Whereas, there is really only one strain of Hib that causes disease in children, there are about 90 different strains of pneumococcus. Fortunately, most of the serious disease in young children is caused by the 13 strains of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccine was found to be highly effective in preventing severe pneumococcal infection in a large trial of children injected with the vaccine. About 40,000 children were included in the initial trial of the vaccine. Since its licensure, the pneumococcal vaccine has been given to millions of children safely.

What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine

Pneumococcal Vaccines for Developing Countries

The pneumonia vaccine is an injection that prevents you from contracting pneumococcal disease. There are two pneumococcal vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States:

  • PCV13 Prevnar 13®: This vaccine helps protect against the 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria that most commonly cause serious infections in children and adults. Doctors give this vaccine to children at 12 through 15 months, 2, 4, and 6 years old. Adults who need this vaccine get just one shot.
  • PPSV23 Pneumovax23®: This vaccine helps protect against serious infections caused by 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. Doctors give a single shot of this vaccine to people who need it, but the CDC recommends one or two additional shots for people with certain chronic medical conditions.
  • The Center for Disease Control recommends the PCV13 vaccine for:

    • All children younger than 2 years old
    • People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions

    The CDC recommends PPSV23 for:

    • All adults 65 years or older
    • People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
    • Smokers 19 through 64 years old

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    Who Qualifies For Pneumonia Vaccination

    Children below two years of age and adults older than 65 years are all eligible for receiving the vaccine for pneumonia. Different types of vaccines are available for different age groups and their vaccination needs. Discuss your medical history and health issues with your doctor before receiving your first dose of the vaccine.

    Clarify whether you or your child come under the category of risk. People who require the pneumonia vaccine include:

    • Babies and premature babies
    • Children and adults with health issues
    • Immunocompromised patients

    How Are Cvs Pharmacy And Minuteclinic Different

    At the pharmacy, vaccinations for adolescents through seniors are administered by a certified immunizationâtrained pharmacist. Age and state restrictions apply. No appointment necessary.

    At MinuteClinic, vaccinations for children all the way through seniors are administered by a nurse practicioner or a physician associate.* No appointment necessary.

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    Who Shouldnt Get Prevnar 20

    People who have had a severe allergic reaction in the past to any of the vaccines ingredients including diphtheria protein should not receive Prevnar 20. People who are 17 years or younger also shouldnt receive this vaccine.

    At this time, the FDA didnt place any other restrictions on who can receive Prevnar 20. If youre unsure if you should receive this vaccine, your healthcare provider can give you more information.

    Whats The Difference Between Pcv13 And Ppsv23

    Prevnar 13 Pneumococcal 13 Valent Conjugate Vaccine (Na), 0.5ml in ...
    PCV13
    helps protect you against 13 different strains of pneumococcal bacteriahelps protect you against 23 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria
    usually given four separate times to children under twogenerally given once to anyone over 64
    generally given only once to adults older than 64 or adults older than 19 if they have an immune conditiongiven to anyone over 19 who regularly smokes nicotine products like cigarettes or cigars
    • Both vaccines help prevent pneumococcal complications like bacteremia and meningitis.
    • Youll need more than one pneumonia shot during your lifetime. A 2016 study found that, if youre over 64, receiving both the PCV13 shot and the PPSV23 shot provide the best protection against all the strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia.
    • Dont get the shots too close together. Youll need to wait about a year in between each shot.
    • Check with your doctor to make sure youre not allergic to any of the ingredients used to make these vaccines before getting either shot.
    • a vaccine made with diphtheria toxoid
    • another version of the shot called PCV7
    • any previous injections of a pneumonia shot
    • are allergic to any ingredients in the shot
    • have had severe allergies to a PPSV23 shot in the past
    • are very sick

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    Path To Improved Health

    Pneumococcal vaccines can protect you against getting pneumonia, which is contagious and spreads from close, person-to-person contact. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and can lead to many symptoms, including:

    • cough
    • chest pains
    • bringing up mucus when you cough

    For seniors, pneumonia can be very serious and life-threatening. This is especially true if you have a chronic condition, such as diabetes or COPD. Pneumonia can also develop after youve had a case of the flu or a respiratory virus such as COVID-19. It is extremely important to stay current on flu shots each year in addition to your pneumococcal vaccines.

    While PPSV23 and PCV13 do not protect against all types of pneumonia, they can make it less likely that you will experience severe and possibly life-threatening complications from the illness.

    The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that seniors who have not had either pneumococcal vaccine should get a dose of PCV13 first, and then a dose of PPSV23 6-12 months later. The vaccines cannot be given at the same time. If you have recently had a dose of PPSV23, your doctor will wait at least one year to give you PCV13.

    Persons With Chronic Diseases

    Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

    Asplenia or hyposplenia

    Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

    Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis

    Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

    Neurologic disorders

    Chronic lung disease, including asthma

    Chronic heart disease

    Chronic liver disease

    Endocrine and metabolic diseases

    Non-malignant hematologic disorders

    Cochlear implants

    Recommended Reading: Age Requirement For Pneumonia Vaccine

    Should Adults Over 65 Get Prevnar 13

    PCV13 is still a safe and effective vaccine, especially if you have medical conditions or live in a place with high risk of exposure to pneumococcal strains, such as a nursing home or long-term care facility. Doctors and their patients need to consider both the exposure risk and personal risks for each patient to decide whether Prevnar 13 is necessary. If you have questions about either vaccine, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

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    According to the CDC, only about 70% of adults aged 65 and older ever receive a pneumococcal vaccination, either PCV13 or PPSV23. Hopefully, the new recommendations will encourage more people to get vaccinated since healthy adults now only need a single dose rather than two doses.

    Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

    There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults

    The pneumococcal vaccine is safe and effective and can help reduce the risk of infection with certain types of pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. All interprofessional healthcare team members, including clinicians , nursing staff, and pharmacists, should educate patients on the benefits of the pneumococcal vaccine, answer patient questions, allay any concerns they may have about the vaccine, and provide information for the patient in the unlikely event that they experience and adverse reaction. All healthcare team members also need to ensure the patient’s medical record is updated to reflect the most recent vaccine administration, especially since clinicians, nurses, and pharmacists can all administer the vaccine in most states. This integrated teamwork and information sharing will help drive improved patient outcomes. Over the years, the vaccine has proven to be safe and effective.

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    What If It Is Not Clear What A Person’s Vaccination History Is

    When indicated, vaccines should be administered to patients with unknown vaccination status. All residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities should have their vaccination status assessed and documented.

    How long must a person wait to receive other vaccinations?

    Inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanusvaccines may be given at the same time as or at any time before or after a dose of pneumococcus vaccine. There are no requirements to wait between the doses of these or any other inactivated vaccines.

    Vaccination of children recommended

    In July 2000, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the CDC jointly recommended childhood pneumococcal immunization, since pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States.

    “The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13 or Prevnar 13, is currently recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age, all adults 65 years or older, and persons 6 through 64 years of age with certain medical conditions,” according to the 2014 AAP/CDC guidelines. “Pneumovax is a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that is currently recommended for use in all adults 65 years of age or older and for persons who are 2 years and older and at high risk for pneumococcal disease . PPSV23 is also recommended for use in adults 19 through 64 years of age who smoke cigarettes or who have asthma.”

    Where Can I Find These Vaccines

    Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.

    PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:

    • Pediatric and family practice offices
    • Community health clinics

    If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

    Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:

    • Pharmacies
    • Health departments
    • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

    Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.

    When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

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    Adults At High Risk Of Ipd

    Adults with immunocompromising conditions resulting in high risk of IPD, except HSCT, should receive 1 dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine followed at least 8 weeks later by 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. The dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine should be administered at least 1 year after any previous dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Immunocompromised persons for information about immunization of HSCT recipients.

    Immunocompetent adults with conditions or lifestyle factors resulting in high risk of IPD should receive 1 dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, if not previously received. One dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is also recommended for all adults who are residents of long-term care facilities and should be considered for individuals who use illicit drugs.

    Some experts also suggest a dose of Pneu-C-13 vaccine, followed by Pneu-P-23 vaccine, for immunocompetent adults with conditions resulting in high risk of IPD as this may theoretically improve antibody response and immunologic memory. However, Pneu-P-23 vaccine is the vaccine of choice for these individuals, and if only one vaccine can be provided, it should be Pneu-P-23 vaccine, because of the greater number of serotypes included in the vaccine.

    Adults at highest risk of IPD should also receive 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine refer to Booster doses and re-immunization.

    Table 4 – provides recommended schedules for adult immunization with pneumococcal vaccines.

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