Wednesday, September 28, 2022

What Is The Definition Of Pneumonia

How Is Pneumonia Treated

Aspiration Pneumonia (Medical Definition) | Quick Explainer Video

Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have. Most of the time, pneumonia is treated at home, but severe cases may be treated in the hospital. Antibiotics are used for bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics may also speed recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia and some special cases. Most viral pneumonias dont have specific treatment. They usually get better on their own.

Other treatment may include eating well, increasing fluid intake, getting rest, oxygen therapy, pain medicine, fever control, and maybe cough-relief medicine if cough is severe.

How Can I Tell If I Have Pneumonia Versus The Common Cold Or The Flu

Do I have a cold or could it be the flu or even pneumonia? Its tough to tell the difference but critical to know when to seek medical care

Watch for these ongoing symptoms that occur in pneumonia:

  • Serious congestion or chest pain.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • A fever of 102 or higher.
  • Coughing that produces pus.

Pneumonia symptoms last longer than cold and flu. If your symptoms arent severe, its okay to try such home remedies as getting more rest, drinking more fluids and taking some over-the-counter medicines and see what happens. But if you dont see improvement in your symptoms after three to five days, or if you are experiencing more serious symptoms such as dizziness or severe difficulty breathing, see your healthcare provider. Dont let it go. Pneumonia-like symptoms in very young children or in adults older than 65 are a cause for concern. Also, pneumonia can cause permanent lung damage if left untreated for too long. And always seek immediate care if you experience chest pain or have breathing difficulties.

How Do The Lungs Work

Your lungs main job is to get oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide. This happens during breathing. You breathe 12 to 20 times per minute when you are not sick. When you breathe in, air travels down the back of your throat and passes through your voice box and into your windpipe . Your trachea splits into two air passages . One bronchial tube leads to the left lung, the other to the right lung. For the lungs to perform their best, the airways need to be open as you breathe in and out. Swelling and mucus can make it harder to move air through the airways, making it harder to breathe. This leads to shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and feeling more tired than normal.

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Evaluating The Severity Of Pneumonia

In a multisite study of etiology, geography is a key variable of interest. After accounting for variation in major risk factors, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection or sickle cell anemia, are there region-specific differences in etiological agents that provide additional clues about the epidemiology of the disease? One of the strongest confounders for this analysis is disease severity on admission, which may vary as a function of either hospital practice or health-seeking behavior. If one study site recruits less severe cases of pneumonia and another recruits only those in extremis, then the etiologic differences are likely to be due to the admission policy rather than to geographic location. To control for this, we aimed to define an index of clinical severity. The WHO clinical case definition provides only 2 gradessevere pneumonia and very severe pneumoniaand although these are associated with clinical outcome , they provide a relatively coarse classification to control for a potential confounder. We considered several approaches to provide a finer grading.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Bacterial Versus Viral Pneumonia In Adults

PPT

Symptoms of pneumonia can range from mild sometimes called walking pneumonia to severe. How serious your case of pneumonia depends on the particular germ causing pneumonia, your overall health, and your age.

Bacterial pneumonia: Symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop gradually or suddenly. Symptoms include:

  • High fever
  • Tiredness

Additional symptoms appearing about a day later include:

  • Higher fever
  • Shortness of breath

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What Other Problems Can Pneumonia Cause

Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as:

  • Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to .
  • Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs
  • Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity.
  • Respiratory failure

Medical History And Physical Exam

Your doctor will ask about your signs and symptoms and when they began. Your doctor will also ask whether you have any risk factors for pneumonia. Your doctor also may ask about:

  • Exposure to sick people at home, school, or work or in a hospital
  • Flu or pneumonia vaccinations
  • Exposure to birds and other animals
  • Smoking

During your physical exam, your doctor will check your temperature and listen to your lungs with a stethoscope.

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How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person

Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.

Examples Of Pneumonia In A Sentence

What is Pneumonia? (Medical Definition)

pneumoniapneumonia CNNpneumoniaAnchorage Daily Newspneumonia alpneumoniaorlandosentinel.compneumonia Scientific AmericanpneumoniaSan Diego Union-TribunepneumoniaMilwaukee Journal SentinelpneumoniaDetroit Free Press

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘pneumonia.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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Take Steps To Help Your Body Recover

The following steps can help your body recover from pneumonia.

  • Choose heart-healthy foods, because good nutrition helps your body recover.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to help you stay hydrated.
  • Dont drink alcohol or use illegal drugs. Alcohol and illegal drugs weaken your immune system and can raise the risk of complications from pneumonia.
  • Dont smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. Breathing in smoke can worsen your pneumonia. Visit Smoking and Your Heart and Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. For free help quitting smoking, you may call the National Cancer Institutes Smoking Quitline at 1-877-44U-QUIT .
  • Get plenty of sleep. Good quality sleep can help your body rest and improve the response of your immune system. For more information on sleep, visit our How Sleep Works health topic.
  • Get light physical activity. Moving around can help you regain your strength and improve your recovery. However, you may still feel short of breath, and activity that is too strenuous may make you dizzy. Talk to your doctor about how much activity is right for you.
  • Sit upright to help you feel more comfortable and breathe more easily.
  • Take a couple of deep breaths several times a day.

Respiratory And Circulatory Failure

Pneumonia can cause respiratory failure by triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome , which results from a combination of infection and inflammatory response. The lungs quickly fill with fluid and become stiff. This stiffness, combined with severe difficulties extracting oxygen due to the alveolar fluid, may require long periods of mechanical ventilation for survival. Other causes of circulatory failure are hypoxemia, inflammation, and increased coagulability.

is a potential complication of pneumonia but usually occurs in people with poor immunity or hyposplenism. The organisms most commonly involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Other causes of the symptoms should be considered such as a myocardial infarction or a pulmonary embolism.

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Diagnostic Tests And Procedures

If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she may do one or more of the following tests.

  • Chest X-ray to look for inflammation in your lungs. A chest X-ray is often used to diagnose pneumonia.
  • Blood tests, such as a complete blood count to see whether your immune system is fighting an infection.
  • Pulse oximetry to measure how much oxygen is in your blood. Pneumonia can keep your lungs from moving enough oxygen into your blood. To measure the levels, a small sensor called a pulse oximeter is attached to your finger or ear.

If you are in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems, your doctor may do other tests to diagnose pneumonia.

Minimising Problematic Heterogeneitydefinitions And Classification Of Pneumonia

pneumonia

Two examples of pneumonia research that have substantially advanced the field illustrate the scientific benefit of using restrictive criteria to study homogenous patient subgroups. Firstly, between 1971 and 1981 a collection of childhood pneumonia aetiology studies using lung aspiration established, without a doubt, that the aetiology in cases of substantial lobar pneumonia was bacterial in 3080 % of cases and pneumococcal in 1050 % . A more recent study by McNally and colleagues extensively investigated children with severe or very severe pneumonia with half having failed therapy , and found that 18 % had more than one aetiologic bacterial organism, thus establishing the paradigm of co-infection in pneumonia.

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Can Pneumonia Be Prevented

Check with your healthcare provider about getting immunizations. The flu is a common cause of pneumonia. Because of that, getting a flu shot every year can help prevent both the flu and pneumonia.

There is also a pneumococcal vaccine. It will protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. Children younger than age 5 and adults ages 65 and older should get this shot.

The pneumococcal shot is also recommended for all children and adults who are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions.

Who Is Most At Risk For Getting Pneumonia

People who have an increased risk of pneumonia include:

  • People over the age of 65 and infants under age 2. The weakening immune system of older people makes them less able to fight off illnesses. Similarly, the immune system of infants is still developing and not at full-strength, making them more susceptible to infection.
  • People with a health-caused weakened immune system. Examples include:
  • People who are receiving chemotherapy
  • Transplanted organ recipients
  • People who have HIV/AIDS
  • People with autoimmune disease and who are taking medications that suppress the immune system.
  • People who have health conditions that affect the lungs or heart. Examples include:
  • Stroke
  • People who are in the hospital. In particular, people in the ICU or anyone recovering who spends a large amounts of time lying on their backs. This position allows fluids, mucus or germs to settle in the lungs. People who need ventilators to breathe are at even greater risk since they have a difficult time coughing up germs that could cause a lung infection.
  • People who smoke or drink alcohol. Smoking damages lung tissue and long-term alcohol abuse weakens the immune system.
  • People who are exposed to toxic fumes, chemicals or secondhand smoke. These contaminants weaken lung function and make it easier to develop a lung infection.
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    Things That You Can Do To Help Your Child At Home Are

    • Control the fever with the proper medicine and right strength for the age of your child. Fevers lower than 101° F do not need to be treated unless the child is uncomfortable .
    • Give your child plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
    • See that your child gets lots of rest.
    • Do not give over-the-counter cough medicines or other OTC medicines without asking the health provider first. The child needs to cough and bring up the phlegm. Coughing is the bodys way of clearing the infection from the lungs.
    • Avoid exposing your child to tobacco smoke or other irritants in the air.

    Besides Vaccination What Else Can I Do To Prevent Bacterial And Viral Pneumonia

    Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Medical Definition) | Quick Explainer Video

    Receiving all recommended vaccinations is one of the best ways to prevent pneumonia. Additionally, there are several other ways to prevent pneumonia, including:

    • Quitting smoking, and avoiding secondhand smoke. Smoking damages your lungs.
    • Washing your hands before eating, before handling food, after using the restroom, and after being outside. If soap is not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
    • Avoiding being around people who are sick. Ask them to visit when they are feeling better.
    • Not touching or sharing objects that are shared with others. Germs can be transferred from object to you if you touch your nose or mouth without washing or sanitizing your hands first.
    • Eating a healthy diet, exercise, and get enough rest. Healthy habits keep your immune system strong.
    • Getting treated for any other infections or health conditions you may have. These conditions could weaken your immune system, which could increase your chance of infections.
    • Avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol.

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    Pleural Effusion Empyema And Abscess

    In pneumonia, a collection of fluid may form in the space that surrounds the lung. Occasionally, microorganisms will infect this fluid, causing an empyema. To distinguish an empyema from the more common simple parapneumonic effusion, the fluid may be collected with a needle , and examined. If this shows evidence of empyema, complete drainage of the fluid is necessary, often requiring a drainage catheter. In severe cases of empyema, surgery may be needed. If the infected fluid is not drained, the infection may persist, because antibiotics do not penetrate well into the pleural cavity. If the fluid is sterile, it must be drained only if it is causing symptoms or remains unresolved.

    In rare circumstances, bacteria in the lung will form a pocket of infected fluid called a lung abscess. Lung abscesses can usually be seen with a chest X-ray but frequently require a chest CT scan to confirm the diagnosis. Abscesses typically occur in aspiration pneumonia, and often contain several types of bacteria. Long-term antibiotics are usually adequate to treat a lung abscess, but sometimes the abscess must be drained by a surgeon or radiologist.

    What About The Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccines

    Because the flu is a common cause of pneumonia, consider getting your flu vaccine. This is one of the reasons we recommend the flu vaccine, because not only can you get the flu virus and feel really miserable, but you can end up with a secondary bacterial infection which could be very serious or even fatal, Dr. Cameron says.

    There is also a pneumococcal vaccine, which offers protection from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. The shot is recommended for children younger than 5 and adults 65 and older. It is also advised for children and adults who are at an increased risk of pneumonia due to other health conditions.

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    What Are The Different Types Of Pneumonia

    The main types of pneumonia are:

    • Bacterial pneumonia. This is caused by various bacteria. The streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterium that causes bacterial pneumonia.Many other bacteria may cause bacterial pneumonia including:

    • Group B streptococcus

    Bacterial pneumonia may have a quick onset and the following symptoms may occur:

    • Productive cough

  • Viral pneumonia. This is caused by various viruses, including the following:

  • Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV

  • Parainfluenza virus

  • Influenza virus

  • Adenovirus

  • Early symptoms of viral pneumonia are the same as those of bacterial pneumonia. However, with viral pneumonia, the respiratory involvement happens slowly. Wheezing may occur and the cough may worsen.

    Viral pneumonias may make a child susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.

  • Mycoplasma pneumonia. This presents somewhat different symptoms and physical signs than other types of pneumonia. They generally cause a mild, widespread pneumonia that affects all age groups but more commonly in older children.

    Symptoms usually do not start with a cold, and may include the following:

  • Fever and cough are the first to develop

  • Cough that is persistent and may last three to four weeks

  • A severe cough that may produce some mucus

  • Other less common pneumonias may be caused by the inhaling of food, liquid, gases or dust, or by fungi.

    Integrated Management Of Childhood Illnesses

    PPT

    With time, this definition was incorporated into the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy , which provides triage and management guidelines at the primary healthcare level, and into the WHO guidelines for the management of children in hospital . It is therefore known and accepted throughout the developing world. Because it was incorporated into IMCI, the definition of very severe pneumonia was influenced by the danger signs of very severe disease, an important concept for triage regardless of the underlying syndrome, and the features lethargy, convulsions or impaired consciousness were added, as was vomiting everything. In addition, the original definition of pneumonia did not acknowledge the variation of clinical presentation with age, so head nodding, a mark of respiratory distress in young infants, was included and unable to drink was extended to include unable to breastfeed.

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    How Common Is Pneumonia

    Approximately 1 million adults in the United States are hospitalized each year for pneumonia and 50,000 die from the disease. It is the second most common reason for being admitted to the hospital — childbirth is number one. Pneumonia is the most common reason children are admitted to the hospital in the United States. Seniors who are hospitalized for pneumonia face a higher risk of death compared to any of the top 10 other reasons for hospitalization.

    Other Ways To Prevent Pneumonia

    You can take the following steps to help prevent pneumonia:

    • Wash your hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizers to kill germs.
    • Dont smoke. Smoking prevents your lungs from properly filtering out and defending your body against germs. For information about how to quit smoking, visit Smoking and Your Heart and Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. These resources include basic information about how to quit smoking. For free help and support, you may call the National Cancer Institutes Smoking Quitline at 1-877-44U-QUIT .
    • Keep your immune system strong. Get plenty of physical activity and follow a healthy eating plan. Read more about heart-healthy living.
    • If you have problems swallowing, eat smaller meals of thickened foodand sleep with the head of your bed raised up. These steps can help you avoid getting food, drink, or saliva into your lungs.
    • If you have a planned surgery, your doctor may recommend that you dont eat for 8 hours or drink liquids for 2 hours before your surgery. This can help prevent food or drink from getting into your airway while you are sedated.
    • If your immune system is impaired or weakened, your doctor may recommend you take antibiotics to prevent bacteria from growing in your lungs.

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