Thursday, September 29, 2022

What Is The Most Common Antibiotic For Pneumonia

How Did I Get Walking Pneumonia And How Can I Avoid Getting It Again

Treating Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumoniae spreads from person-to-person through respiratory droplets the same way viruses like COVID-19 or influenza spread. When someone with the bacteria coughs or sneezes, they release droplets into the air and you can breathe them in. You can also get it from touching objects or surfaces that have the bacteria on them and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth.

People usually start having symptoms 2 to 3 weeks after they are exposed to the bacteria.

Theres no vaccine for mycoplasma pneumoniae. The best ways to keep from getting sick are frequent hand washing and staying apart from people who have symptoms of a cold.

If youre sick, help keep others healthy by washing your hands, staying home when possible, and covering your nose and mouth with your elbow when you cough or sneeze.

What Is Dog Pneumonia

Pneumonia is irritation and inflammation within the lungs that results in the buildup of fluid within the air sacs. This compromises the normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the lungs, resulting in difficult breathing. Pneumonia can be caused by various reasons, including:

  • Bacteria
  • Inhalation of stomach contents, food, chemicals, fluids, foreign materials
  • Inhalation of chemicals, smoke

Pneumonia ranges from mild symptoms that affect small parts of the lungs to complete respiratory distress and an inability to breathe normally. Many cases of pneumonia require veterinary intervention immediately and should be treated as an emergency.

What About Hospital Treatment

Hospital admission may be advised if you have severe pneumonia, or if symptoms do not quickly improve after you have started antibiotic treatment. Also, you are more likely to be treated in hospital if you are already in poor health, or if an infection with a more serious infecting germ is suspected. For example, if infection with Legionella pneumophila is suspected. Even if you are in hospital, you are likely to be offered antibiotics in capsule, tablet or liquid form unless you have difficulties taking them, in which case they may be given through a vein. Your antibiotic treatment will be stopped after five days, unless you are very unwell.

Sometimes oxygen and other supportive treatments are needed if you have severe pneumonia. Those who become severely unwell may need treatment in an intensive care unit.

When you return home, even though the infection is treated, you may feel tired and unwell for some time.

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Going To The Hospital

If you have severe pneumonia, you may have to go to the hospital:

  • In most cases of pneumonia you get in your daily life, such as at school or work , it is not necessary to go to the hospital.footnote 2
  • About one-third of people with community-based pneumonia are age 65 or older.footnote 2 Older adults are treated in the hospital more often and stay longer for the condition than younger people.footnote 2 Pneumonia is more serious in this group, because they often have and may develop other medical problems.

When Should I See My Doctor

Antimicrobial Therapy for Hospital

Pneumonia can be life-threatening if left untreated, especially for certain at-risk people. You should call your doctor if you have a cough that wont go away, shortness of breath, chest pain, or a fever. You should also call your doctor if you suddenly begin to feel worse after having a cold or the flu.

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Is There A Vaccine For Pneumonia

There isnt a vaccine for all types of pneumonia, but 2 vaccines are available. These help prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. The first is recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age. The second is recommended for anyone age 2 or older who is at increased risk for pneumonia. Getting the pneumonia vaccine is especially important if you:

  • Are 65 years of age or older.
  • Smoke.
  • Have certain chronic conditions, such as asthma, lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, sickle cell disease, or cirrhosis.
  • Have a weakened immune system because of HIV/AIDS, kidney failure, a damaged or removed spleen, a recent organ transplant, or receiving chemotherapy.
  • Have cochlear implants .

The pneumococcal vaccines cant prevent all cases of pneumonia. But they can make it less likely that people who are at risk will experience the severe, and possibly life-threatening, complications of pneumonia.

Can Pneumonia Be Prevented Or Avoided

There are many factors that can raise your risk for developing pneumonia. These include:

People who have any of the following conditions are also at increased risk:

  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • asthma
  • sickle cell disease

You can help prevent pneumonia by doing the following:

  • Get the flu vaccine each year. People can develop bacterial pneumonia after a case of the flu. You can reduce this risk by getting the yearly flu shot.
  • Get the pneumococcal vaccine. This helps prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria.
  • Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Dont smoke. Smoking damages your lungs and makes it harder for your body to defend itself from germs and disease. If you smoke, talk to your family doctor about quitting as soon as possible.
  • Practice a healthy lifestyle. Eat a balanced diet full of fruits and vegetables. Exercise regularly. Get plenty of sleep. These things help your immune system stay strong.
  • Avoid sick people. Being around people who are sick increases your risk of catching what they have.

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How Is Pneumonia Treated

When you get a pneumonia diagnosis, your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment plan. Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia you have, how sick you are feeling, your age, and whether you have other health conditions. The goals of treatment are to cure the infection and prevent complications. It is important to follow your treatment plan carefully until you are fully recovered.

Take any medications as prescribed by your doctor. If your pneumonia is caused by bacteria, you will be given an antibiotic. It is important to take all the antibiotic until it is gone, even though you will probably start to feel better in a couple of days. If you stop, you risk having the infection come back, and you increase the chances that the germs will be resistant to treatment in the future.

Typical antibiotics do not work against viruses. If you have viral pneumonia, your doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication to treat it. Sometimes, though, symptom management and rest are all that is needed.

Most people can manage their symptoms such as fever and cough at home by following these steps:

If your pneumonia is so severe that you are treated in the hospital, you may be given intravenous fluids and antibiotics, as well as oxygen therapy, and possibly other breathing treatments.

Cough And Cold Medicines

What do Singaporeans know about pneumonia?

Be careful with cough and cold medicines. They may not be safe for young children or for people who have certain health problems, so check the label first. If you do use these medicines, always follow the directions about how much to use based on age and weight.

Always check to see if any over-the-counter cough or cold medicines you are taking contain acetaminophen. If they do, make sure the acetaminophen you are taking in your cold medicine plus any other acetaminophen you may be taking is not higher than the daily recommended dose. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how much you can take every day.

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Amoxicillin Alone Better Choice For Pediatric Pneumonia: Study

A combination of two antibiotics is often prescribed to treat community-acquired pneumonia in children, but a JAMA Pediatrics study is now showing that using just one of the two has the same benefit to patients in most cases.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center researchers reported this week that amoxicillin alone, rather than combined with azithromycin, is just as effective and a better choice as it relates to efforts to curb antibiotic resistance.

One of the most commonly used antibiotics in pediatrics, azithromycin was prescribed to 12.2 million outpatients in 2013 and accounted for almost 20 percent of all antibiotic prescriptions for children in the U. S. ambulatory setting, according to an editorial accompanying the study.

Combination therapy with azithromycin is unnecessary in most cases of pediatric pneumonia, both because the bacteria targeted by azithromycin are less common than other causes of pneumonia, including viruses, and the effectiveness of azithromycin has not been clearly demonstrated in prior studies, said lead author Derek Williams, M.D., MPH, assistant professor of Pediatrics.

By minimizing antibiotic exposure whenever possible, we can preserve the effectiveness of currently available antibiotics.

Williams and co-authors studied 1,418 children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia.

Thus, the combined therapy showed no benefit over the single therapy of just amoxicillin, Williams said.

What Can I Do At Home To Feel Better

In addition to taking any antibiotics and/or medicine your doctor prescribes, you should also:

  • Get lots of rest. Rest will help your body fight the infection.
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Fluids will keep you hydrated. They can help loosen the mucus in your lungs. Try water, warm tea, and clear soups.
  • Stop smoking if you smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. Smoke can make your symptoms worse. Smoking also increases your risk of developing pneumonia and other lung problems in the future. You should also avoid lit fireplaces or other areas where the air may not be clean.
  • Stay home from school or work until your symptoms go away. This usually means waiting until your fever breaks and you arent coughing up mucus. Ask your doctor when its okay for you to return to school or work.
  • Use a cool-mist humidifier or take a warm bath. This will help clear your lungs and make it easier for you to breathe.

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What Is The Outlook For Pneumonia

If you are well enough to be looked after at home, your outlook is very good. Less than 1 person in 100 will die as a result of pneumonia. Those who die tend to be people who are older, or those who also have other health problems.

If you need to be looked after in hospital, the outlook is not quite so good. 5-10 people in 100 admitted with pneumonia to an ordinary ward rather than an intensive care unit may die. Again, these will usually be people who were unwell before they had pneumonia, or the elderly. For people who need to have a tube put into their windpipe to help them breathe, the death rate rises to 1 in 4.

If the pneumonia is very severe, or caused by an aggressive type of germ , such as legionella, you may need to be moved to an intensive care unit in the hospital. In these cases the outlook is much worse. Unfortunately, as many as half of these people may die.

If you are normally well but then develop repeated bouts of pneumonia, it may be the first sign of a problem of your lung or immune system. Some tests of your immune system may be advised if pneumonia happens again for no apparent reason.

Unrealistic Expectations And Limited Awareness

An Overview of Antibiotics

Limited awareness among the general public is a challenge in all settings the WHO recently launched a program to increase awareness about antimicrobial resistance and the need for more prudent antibiotic use . In response, country-specific strategies to limit antimicrobial resistance have been launched in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia , but few Asian countries have followed suit. Unrealistic public expectation is a major factor driving excessive antibiotic use . A study in rural Vietnam showed that just 13% of caregivers had correct knowledge about acute respiratory infections and 38% of caregivers self-managed common colds by buying antibiotics without prescription at the local pharmacy . In Malaysia, 67% of people believed antibiotics to be effective against viral infections, with 47% using antibiotics during a common cold . Moreover, antibiotic use is strongly influenced by cultural preferences and beliefs. Patients in Vietnam and China believe injectable antibiotics are more potent than oral options, and readily access injectable antibiotics without prescription . A lack of adequate knowledge is also a problem among healthcare providers. A study in Vietnam demonstrated poor awareness about the risks and consequences of drug resistance among rural health-care providers when treating ARTIs only 19% complied with recommended guidelines and 79% used antibiotics for common colds .

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Spreading Pneumonia To Others

If your pneumonia is caused by a virus or bacteria, you may spread the infection to other people while you are contagious. How long you are contagious depends on what is causing the pneumonia and whether you get treatment. You may be contagious for several days to a week.

If you get antibiotics, you usually cannot spread the infection to others after a day of treatment.

How Is Walking Pneumonia Different From Regular Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia differs from typical pneumonia in several ways, including:

  • Walking pneumonia is a milder form of pneumonia.
  • Walking pneumonia usually does not require bed rest or hospitalization.
  • Walking pneumonia is usually caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Typical pneumonia is most commonly caused by _Streptococcus _pneumonia or influenza virus or rhinovirus.

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How Do You Get Pneumonia

You may get pneumonia:

  • After you breathe infected air particles into your lungs.
  • After you breathe certain bacteria from your nose and throat into your lungs.
  • During or after a viral upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or influenza .
  • As a complication of a viral illness, such as measles or chickenpox.
  • If you breathe large amounts of food, gastric juices from the stomach, or vomit into the lungs . This can happen when you have had a medical condition that affects your ability to swallow, such as a seizure or a stroke.

A healthy person’s nose and throat often contain bacteria or viruses that cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can develop when these organisms spread to your lungs while your lungs are more likely to be infected. Examples of times when this can happen are during or soon after a cold or if you have a long-term illness, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .

You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work or when you are in a hospital or nursing home . Treatment may differ in healthcare-associated pneumonia, because bacteria causing the infection in hospitals may be different from those causing it in the community. This topic focuses on community-associated pneumonia.

Lab Tests For Pneumonia

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (Medical Definition) | Quick Explainer Video

The need for more tests often depends on how severe your symptoms are, your age, and your overall health. In general, the sicker you are, the more tests you may need. This is especially true for older adults and infants. One example of a test you may have is the arterial blood gas test.

Mucus test

If you are very ill, have severe shortness of breath, or have a condition that increases your risk , your doctor may test your mucus. Tests include a Gram stain and a sputum culture.

Rapid urine test

This test can identify some bacteria that cause pneumonia. This can help guide treatment for pneumonia.

HIV test

In people who have impaired immune systems, pneumonia may be caused by other organisms, including some forms of fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci . This fungus often causes pneumonia in people who have AIDS. Some doctors may suggest an HIV test if they think that Pneumocystis jiroveci is causing the pneumonia.

Other lung tests

If you have severe pneumonia, you may need other tests, including tests to check for complications and to find out how well your immune system is working.

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Key Points About Pneumonia

  • Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

  • There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, and theyre grouped by the cause. The main types of pneumonia are bacterial, viral, and mycoplasma pneumonia.

  • A cough that produces green, yellow, or bloody mucus is the most common symptom of pneumonia. Other symptoms include fever, shaking chills, shortness of breath, low energy, and extreme tiredness.

  • Pneumonia can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical exam. Tests used to look at the lungs, blood tests, and tests done on the sputum you cough up may also be used.

  • Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have. Antibiotics are used for bacterial pneumonia. It may also speed recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia and some special cases. Most viral pneumonias dont have a specific treatment and just get better on their own. Other treatment may include a healthy diet, more fluids, rest, oxygen therapy, and medicine for pain, cough, and fever control.

  • Most people with pneumonia respond well to treatment, but pneumonia can cause serious lung and infection problems. It can even be deadly.

How Is Walking Pneumonia Diagnosed

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms, how long youve had them and if any other family members or people you regularly interact with are also ill with similar symptoms. He or she will listen to your lungs with a stethoscope to check for abnormal breath sounds. Your doctor may order chest X-rays to see if there is an infection in your lungs. Your blood or mucus might be tested to determine if your pneumonia is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, another bacteria, virus or fungus.

Also Check: Tell If You Have Pneumonia

Treatment Of Dog Pneumonia

Therapy depends on the type of pneumonia and underlying pathology, or other illnesses. The severity of the disease will also dictate the intensity of treatment. Mild cases of pneumonia can be managed on an outpatient basis with medications, rest and home care. Moderate to severe cases require hospitalization – often at emergency facilities – with 24/7 nursing care and special equipment.

Antibiotics

Veterinarians prescribe antibiotics to dogs with primary or secondary bacterial pneumonia. Most common antibiotics include Doxycycline, Fluoroquinolone and Amoxicillin-clavulanic Acid. Treatment length is typically long-term, sometimes more than a month. Frequent rechecks help determine how long the antibiotics must be taken.

Oxygen Therapy

For animals who cannot oxygenate sufficiently on room-air, they are placed on supplemental oxygen. This may be a nasal or face mask, but veterinarians most commonly utilize an oxygen cage. An oxygen cage is an enclosed environment where the oxygen can be manipulated from room air to 100 percent oxygen. This is typically the least stressful way to supply oxygen to dogs in respiratory distress, and indicates the dogs level of illness.

Fluid Therapy

Dogs with pneumonia are typically dehydrated and require an intravenous catheter and fluid therapy to rehydrate. Dehydration impairs respiratory clearance and function, so this is especially important in cases of pneumonia.

Nebulization and Coupage

Ventilation

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