Wednesday, September 28, 2022

What Is The Newest Pneumonia Vaccine

Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine

There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults
  • Adults aged 65 years or older may only need 1 dose. Another dose of either vaccine may be given, if they are at least 1 year apart. Your healthcare provider will tell you if you need more vaccine doses and when to get them.
  • Adults aged 19 to 64 at high risk for pneumococcal disease will need 1 or more doses of the vaccine. If you are Native Alaskan or American Indian, ask your healthcare provider if you need the vaccine. Any of the following can increase your risk for pneumococcal disease:
  • A chronic heart or lung disease, or diabetes
  • Liver disease or alcoholism
  • A cerebrospinal fluid leak or cochlear implant
  • A damaged or removed spleen, or sickle cell disease
  • A weak immune system, HIV, cancer, kidney failure, or an organ transplant
  • Living in a nursing home or long-term care facility

Where Can I Find These Vaccines

Your doctors office is usually the best place to receive recommended vaccines for you or your child.

PCV13 is part of the routine childhood immunization schedule. Therefore, it is regularly available for children at:

  • Pediatric and family practice offices
  • Community health clinics

If your doctor does not have pneumococcal vaccines for adults, ask for a referral.

Pneumococcal vaccines may also be available for adults at:

  • Pharmacies
  • Health departments
  • Other community locations, such as schools and religious centers

Federally funded health centers can also provide services if you do not have a regular source of health care. Locate one near youexternal icon. You can also contact your state health department to learn more about where to get pneumococcal vaccines in your community.

When receiving any vaccine, ask the provider to record the vaccine in the state or local registry, if available. This helps doctors at future encounters know what vaccines you or your child have already received.

Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
  • Feel dizzy
  • Have vision changes
  • Have ringing in the ears
  • Some people get severe pain in the shoulder and have difficulty moving the arm where the doctor gave the shot. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million shots. These types of reactions would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.
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    How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

    There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . This vaccine joins a protein which helps build immunity. Infants and very young children do not respond to polysaccharide antigens, but linkage to this protein enables the developing immune system to recognize and process polysaccharide antigens, leading to production of antibody. It helps protect against disease from13 types of Streptococcal pneumoniae capsular serotypes that are the most common cause of serious infection. Typically, children receive three doses and adults at high risk of severe pneumococcal infection receive one dose.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . This vaccine looks like certain bacteria. This stimulates the body to build protection against the 23 serotypes of Streptococcal pneumonia contained in the vaccine. These 23 serotypes now represent at least 50% to 60% of pneumococcal disease isolates in adults. Most people receive a single dose, with one to two boosters recommended for some.
  • Recommendations For Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines In India

    Do I Need the Pneumonia Vaccine?

    The burden of pneumococcal disease is the greatest among the underprivileged children in India. The PCVs are thus of public health importance and ideally should be available to all children. However the high cost of PCVs and the limited coverage of the currently available vaccine are impediments. GAVI has offered to supply PCV at a cost of 0.150.3 USD/dose to India for inclusion in the national immunization schedule and commits to extending this support until the year 2015. The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is significantly lower in healthy children above the age of 2 y and thus benefit achieved with vaccination of these children is likely to be lower. Vaccination with single dose of PCV vaccine may be considered in children aged 25 y. Pneumococcal vaccination in not recommended in children aged 5 and above. The recommended dosage for PCV 13 is 0.5mL, and the vaccination route is intramuscular.

    Recommended Reading: How To Tell If Pneumonia Is Getting Worse

    Vaccines For Children Program

    The Vaccines for Children Program provides vaccines to children whose parents or guardians may not be able to afford them. A child is eligible if they are younger than 19 years old and meets one of the following requirements:

    • Medicaid-eligible
    • American Indian or Alaska Native
    • Underinsured

    If your child is VFC-eligible, ask if your doctor is a VFC provider. For help in finding a VFC provider near you, contact your state or local health departments VFC Program Coordinator or call CDC at 1-800-CDC-INFO .

    Are The Pneumonia Vaccines Safe

    Yes, pneumonia vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, they go through rigorous scientific testing and review. Although both pneumococcal vaccines can cause mild side effects, severe reactions to the vaccines are rare. In one study of adults over age 70 who received the PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines, there was only one adverse event that was related to the vaccine.

    Allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, but they can occur and may be serious. If you have had an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the pneumococcal vaccines or to a prior dose of a pneumococcal vaccine, you should not get vaccinated without talking to your healthcare provider first.

    If you have questions about whether the pneumonia vaccines are safe for you, discuss this with your healthcare provider. You can also find information about pneumococcal vaccine safety here.

    Read Also: What Is The Best Antibiotic To Treat Pneumonia

    New Pneumococcal Vaccine Approved By The Us Fda

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration just approved a new vaccine for adults. PREVNAR 20 helps prevent invasive disease and pneumonia caused by the 20 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, or subgroups, in the vaccine and is recommended for adults age 18 years and older. Pneumococcal disease can include pneumonia, meningitis and other infections caused by the bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. Read the full press release.

    What is next:

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices will review the new vaccine and decide when and where it will fall into adult immunization schedules.

    What pneumococcal vaccines are currently available?

    There are three vaccines used in the United States to help prevent pneumococcal disease: PCV20, PCV13 and PPSV23. Getting an influenza vaccine every year can also help, because people who get the flu have an increased risk of also getting a pneumococcal disease.

    PCV20

    Prevnar 20 is a vaccine that helps prevent pneumonia and invasive disease caused by 20 pneumococcal subgroups. It is a single-dose intramuscular injection, meaning those age 18 and older who receive it will get the shot injected into a muscle, most commonly the upper arm. The vaccine is manufactured by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer.

    PCV13

    PPSV23

    What is pneumococcal disease?

    Pneumococcal disease is a term used for a wide range of infections caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae , including

    Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Newer Vaccine Available In India

    ASK UNMC What is the new recommendation on pneumonia vaccines for older adults?

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, causes pneumonia and infections of the brain and blood that is responsible for mortality in children under five years. Pneumococcal diseases are a major public health problem worldwide.S. pneumoniae is a Gram-positive encapsulated cocci. Based on differences in the composition of the polysaccharide capsule, about 90 serotypes have been identified. The capsule is an essential virulence factor. The majority of cases of pneumococcal diseases in infants is associated with a small number of these serotypes, which vary by region. Pneumococci are transmitted by direct contact with respiratory secretions from patients and healthy carriers. Although transient nasopharyngeal colonization rather than disease is the normal outcome of exposure to pneumococci, bacterial spread to the sinuses or the middle ear, or bacteremia following penetration of the mucosal layer, may occur in persons susceptible to the involved serotype. Pneumococcal resistance to essential antimicrobials such as penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides is a serious and rapidly increasing problem worldwide. Facilities for laboratory diagnosis of S. pneumoniae, based on growth in traditional culture media, are available in laboratories for routine clinical microbiology, whereas serotyping is performed only in reference laboratories.

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    Who Is Recommended To Get Prevnar 20

    Although adults ages 18 and older are eligible to receive Prevnar 20, its not yet certain how Prevnar 20 will be used alongside Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23.

    The CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices develops recommendations on how to use vaccines. Although Prevnar 20 was approved last week, the CDC and ACIP have yet to incorporate Prevnar 20 into its overall recommendations.

    According to Pfizer, ACIP is expected to meet in to discuss updated recommendations on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults.

    Who Shouldnt Get Prevnar 20

    People who have had a severe allergic reaction in the past to any of the vaccines ingredients including diphtheria protein should not receive Prevnar 20. People who are 17 years or younger also shouldnt receive this vaccine.

    At this time, the FDA didnt place any other restrictions on who can receive Prevnar 20. If youre unsure if you should receive this vaccine, your healthcare provider can give you more information.

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    Do You Need To Get Both Vaccines

    Most people do not, but some may, depending on age and other health conditions.

    Children

    All healthy children should get PCV13, and children with certain health conditions should also receive PPSV23. When both vaccines are needed, they are given 8 weeks apart, and PCV13 is given first.

    Adults aged 65 and over

    All adults aged 65 and older should get PPSV23. If you are a healthy adult over 65, you should talk to your healthcare provider about whether you need PCV13.

    PCV13 used to be recommended for all adults over age 65, but the ACIP recently changed its recommendations. This is because, as more children have been vaccinated with PCV13, the types of pneumococci that this vaccine protects against are less likely to spread and infect older adults. PCV13 can still be given, and your healthcare provider can help you decide if it is right for you.

    Adults younger than 65

    For adults younger than 65, PPSV23 is recommended in certain situations. If you smoke or have a chronic illness, like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or liver disease, you should get PPSV23 at a younger age. Adults with other conditions, like a weakened immune system, should have both vaccines before age 65.

    How Much Does It Cost

    20

    For adults over age 65 who have Medicare Part B, both pneumococcal vaccines are completely covered at no cost, as long as they are given a year apart.

    If you have private insurance or Medicaid, you should check with your individual plan to find out if the vaccines are covered. Usually, routinely recommended vaccinations, like the pneumococcal vaccines, are covered by insurance companies without any copays or coinsurance. This means you can often get the vaccines at little or no cost.

    If you need to pay out of pocket for the vaccines, you can review prices for PCV13 and PPSV23.

    Also Check: How Old Should You Be To Get A Pneumonia Shot

    Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

    Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and should be started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Pneumococcal vaccines may be given, regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccines, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with inadequate immunization records.

    Recommended Reading: Do You Need A Second Pneumonia Shot

    Side Effects Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Like most vaccines, the childhood and adult versions of the pneumococcal vaccine can sometimes cause mild side effects.

    These include:

    • redness where the injection was given
    • hardness or swelling where the injection was given

    There are no serious side effects listed for either the childhood or adult versions of the vaccine, apart from an extremely rare risk of a severe allergic reaction .

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    How Is It Treated

    Antibiotics are the usual treatment, because the organism may not be found. But if the pneumonia is caused by a virus, antivirals may be given. Sometimes, antibiotics may be used to prevent complications.

    Antibiotics usually cure pneumonia caused by bacteria. Be sure to take the antibiotics exactly as instructed. Do not stop taking them just because you feel better. You need to take the full course of antibiotics.

    Pneumonia can make you feel very sick. But after you take antibiotics, you should start to feel much better, although you will probably not be back to normal for several weeks. Call your doctor if you do not start to feel better after 2 to 3 days of antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you feel worse.

    There are things you can do to feel better during your treatment. Get plenty of rest and sleep, and drink lots of liquids. Do not smoke. If your cough keeps you awake at night, talk to your doctor about using cough medicine.

    You may need to go to the hospital if you have bad symptoms, a weak immune system, or another serious illness.

    Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

    WHO approves new vaccine to protect children against pneumonia

    People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

    Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

    Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

    A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

    Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

    There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

    The two types are:

    • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
    • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

    According to the

    • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
    • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
    • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

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    What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.

    How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.

    Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.

    Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.

    Also of Interest

    What Are The Side Effects

    Prior to its approval, Prevnar 20 was studied in six clinical trials. Across these studies, reported side effects were similar for all ages. Most of them were mild to moderate in severity. Like many other vaccines, pain at the injection site is reported as the most common side effect.

    Additional common side effects of Prevnar 20 can include:

    • Muscle pain

    • Joint pain

    • Injection site swelling

    Although most of these side effects happened within 7 to 10 days of the shot, less than 2% of people experienced one or more serious adverse events within 6 months. However, it hasnt been confirmed that these events were due to the vaccine.

    The safety of Prevnar 20 was studied in people who have no history of pneumococcal vaccination, in individuals who have previously received Prevnar 13, and in individuals who have previously received Pneumovax 23. No notable safety differences were seen between the vaccines.

    Next, well discuss who should receive Prevnar 20.

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    The Flu Pneumonia And Inflammation Create A Deadly Threat

    Pneumococcal pneumonia can follow other viral infections, particularly influenza, says William Schaffner, M.D., an infectious disease specialist at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. The biology behind it:The flu virus attaches to, and infects, the cells lining the mucous membranes in the back of the throat, nose and bronchial tubes. Normally, the cells eject infectious agents out of the body via the nose or mouth, or they’re simply swallowed. But when impaired by the flu, the cells lining these membranes allow the bacteria to slip down into the bronchial tubes and trigger a secondary infection, in the lungs. The infection inflames the air sacs in the lungs, causing them to fill with pus and fluid. That not only makes it hard to breathe but can allow bacteria to escape into the bloodstream, causing an infection called sepsis, an aggressive inflammatory response that can, ultimately, lead to organ failure.

    Pneumococcal pneumonia, of course, is also likely be a complication of respiratory syncytial virus , a common and highly contagious winter lung infection, whichuncharacteristicallyspread this summer, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. However, the pneumococcal vaccine wont shield you from pneumonia that results from either of them. As Schaffner puts it, Pneumonia from Covid is a different sort of pneumonia.

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