Wednesday, September 28, 2022

What Medication Is Prescribed For Pneumonia

How Do You Get Pneumonia

Pneumonia Treatment, Nursing Interventions, Antibiotics Medication | NCLEX Respiratory Part 2

You may get pneumonia:

  • After you breathe infected air particles into your lungs.
  • After you breathe certain bacteria from your nose and throat into your lungs.
  • During or after a viral upper respiratory infection, such as a cold or influenza .
  • As a complication of a viral illness, such as measles or chickenpox.
  • If you breathe large amounts of food, gastric juices from the stomach, or vomit into the lungs . This can happen when you have had a medical condition that affects your ability to swallow, such as a seizure or a stroke.

A healthy person’s nose and throat often contain bacteria or viruses that cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can develop when these organisms spread to your lungs while your lungs are more likely to be infected. Examples of times when this can happen are during or soon after a cold or if you have a long-term illness, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease .

You can get pneumonia in your daily life, such as at school or work or when you are in a hospital or nursing home . Treatment may differ in healthcare-associated pneumonia, because bacteria causing the infection in hospitals may be different from those causing it in the community. This topic focuses on community-associated pneumonia.

Cost Of Antimicrobial Therapy

Economic pressures have accentuated the focus on reducing health care costs and utilizing resources while maintaining or improving quality of care.31 These pressures are exacerbated by the growing resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin.31,32 This pattern of resistance increases the cost of treatment because of prolonged hospitalization, relapses, and the use of more expensive antibacterial agents.3337

Lab Tests For Pneumonia

The need for more tests often depends on how severe your symptoms are, your age, and your overall health. In general, the sicker you are, the more tests you may need. This is especially true for older adults and infants. One example of a test you may have is the arterial blood gas test.

Mucus test

If you are very ill, have severe shortness of breath, or have a condition that increases your risk , your doctor may test your mucus. Tests include a Gram stain and a sputum culture.

Rapid urine test

This test can identify some bacteria that cause pneumonia. This can help guide treatment for pneumonia.

HIV test

In people who have impaired immune systems, pneumonia may be caused by other organisms, including some forms of fungi, such as Pneumocystis jiroveci . This fungus often causes pneumonia in people who have AIDS. Some doctors may suggest an HIV test if they think that Pneumocystis jiroveci is causing the pneumonia.

Other lung tests

If you have severe pneumonia, you may need other tests, including tests to check for complications and to find out how well your immune system is working.

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What Is The Outlook For Pneumonia

People who are otherwise healthy often recover quickly when given prompt and proper care. However, pneumonia is a serious condition and can be life-threatening if left untreated and especially for those individuals at increased risk for pneumonia.

Even patients who have been successfully treated and have fully recovered may face long-term health issues. Children who have recovered from pneumonia have an increased risk of chronic lung diseases. Adults may experience:

  • General decline in quality of life for months or years

What Is Walking Pneumonia

Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is a mild form of pneumonia . This non-medical term has become a popular description because you may feel well enough to be walking around, carrying out your daily tasks and not even realize you have pneumonia.

Most of the time, walking pneumonia is caused by an atypical bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which can live and grow in the nose, throat, windpipe and lungs . It can be treated with antibiotics.

Scientists call walking pneumonia caused by mycoplasma atypical because of the unique features of the bacteria itself. Several factors that make it atypical include:

  • Milder symptoms
  • Natural resistance to medicines that would normally treat bacterial infections
  • Often mistaken for a virus because they lack the typical cell structure of other bacteria

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How Is Bacterial Pneumonia Treated

Bacterial pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, which usually help people feel better within a few days to a week.

People who are very old, very young, have shortness of breath, or have a high fever may need to be admitted to the hospital for intravenous antibiotics. If you need to go to the hospital, your doctor may do cultures from sputum or blood tests to identify and target the exact bacteria.

People with more severe cases of bacterial pneumonia may be treated with oxygen, intravenous fluids, and breathing treatments to ease symptoms.

Nursing Care Planning & Goals

Nurses set to achieve goals in conjunction with the patient. These goals are based on the outcome of assessments and the diagnoses.

Examples of goals for the pneumonia patient are:

  • Drink at least 2 liters of water daily

Maintaining adequate hydration is essential. Increased fluid intake assists with the expectoration of secretions.

  • Conduct respiratory exercises as directed

These exercises are crucial for clearing excess secretion, they improve lung function and help to strengthen the diaphragm and the accessory muscles around the lungs.

  • Ensuring adequate nutrition

A balanced diet, including adequate servings of fruit and vegetables, promotes recovery from illness.

  • Attend chest physical therapy

Chest physical therapy benefits mucus transport and assists in the expectoration of secretions.

  • Adhere to medication regimen

Adherence with the prescribed medication regimen is key to recovery and preventing resurgence of pneumonia.

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What About Hospital Treatment

Hospital admission may be advised if you have severe pneumonia, or if symptoms do not quickly improve after you have started antibiotic treatment. Also, you are more likely to be treated in hospital if you are already in poor health, or if an infection with a more serious infecting germ is suspected. For example, if infection with Legionella pneumophila is suspected. Even if you are in hospital, you are likely to be offered antibiotics in capsule, tablet or liquid form unless you have difficulties taking them, in which case they may be given through a vein. Your antibiotic treatment will be stopped after five days, unless you are very unwell.

Sometimes oxygen and other supportive treatments are needed if you have severe pneumonia. Those who become severely unwell may need treatment in an intensive care unit.

When you return home, even though the infection is treated, you may feel tired and unwell for some time.

How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person

Pneumonia | Treatment and Prevention

Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.

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Some Side Effects Can Be Serious If You Experience Any Of These Symptoms Stop Taking Ceftazidime Injection And Call Your Doctor Immediately Or Get Emergency Medical Treatment:

  • watery or bloody stools, stomach cramps, or fever during treatment or for up to two or more months after stopping treatment
  • swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes
  • difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • peeling, blistering, or shedding skin
  • seizures
  • a return of fever, sore throat, chills, or other signs of infection

Ceftazidime injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while using this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online or by phone .

Is There A Vaccine For Pneumonia

Of course, the easiest way to treat pneumonia is to never get it in the first place. The pneumococcal vaccine, sometimes called the pneumonia vaccine, can help you do just that. It inoculates you against infection with Pneumococcus , the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. About 900,000 people in the U.S. get pneumococcal pneumonia each year, according to the CDC, with about 400,000 requiring hospitalization. About 5% to 7% of those hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia die from it.

The same bacteria can also cause life-threatening brain infections and bloodstream infections . The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all adults ages 65 and over, all kids under 2, and people who smoke or have certain chronic health conditions. There are two versions of it: Prevnar 13 and Pneumovax 23 . Talk with your doctor about which you should have. For some groups, both vaccines are recommended.

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How Can Pneumonia Be Treated

If you suffer from pneumonia caused by bacteria, an antibiotic will be prescribed to you. This type of medication helps fight the bacteria in question if it is taken properly. Your pharmacist can be of great help by making sure that you take your medication as prescribed, by answering your questions and providing general advice.

If the pneumonia is caused by a virus, an antibiotic will be of no help. Therefore, the medical approach will consist of treating the symptoms. For instance, medication such as acetaminophen will be useful to relieve fever. In some cases, medications taken with inhalers can be prescribed to dilate the respiratory tract or reduce inflammation of the lungs to make breathing easier. If this is the case, your pharmacist can advise you on how to use inhalers.

Cough syrups are not recommended in the case of pneumonia by preventing coughing, cough syrups hamper the elimination of secretions present in the respiratory tract. If you are considering to use one, it is better to talk to your pharmacist first.

Data Collection And Analysis

Community

We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We estimated risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals and pooled data using the MantelHaenszel fixedeffect model when possible.

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How Can Walking Pneumonia Be Prevented

Unfortunately, no vaccines are available to prevent walking pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Even if you have recovered from walking pneumonia, you will not become immune, so it is possible to become infected again in the future.

Tips for preventing walking pneumonia include:

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you sneeze or cough. If a tissue isnt available, sneeze or cough into the inside of your elbow or sleeve. Never sneeze or cough into your hands. Place used tissues into a waste basket.
  • Wash your hands often with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available.
  • Wear a mask around sick people if you have respiratory conditions or other chronic health conditions that would make getting pneumonia even riskier for you.
  • Get your annual Influenza shot. Bacterial pneumonia can develop after a case of the flu.
  • Ask your doctor about the pneumococcal vaccine. Two types of vaccines are available, Prevnar 13® and Pneumovax 23®. Each vaccine is recommended for people at different age points or who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease, including pneumonia.

Types Of Antibiotics For Pneumonia

There are multiple types of antibiotics that work in slightly different ways. Some are more commonly used to treat pneumonia than others based on things like:

  • The bacteria causing infection
  • The severity of the infection
  • If youre in a patient group at greatest risk from pneumonia

The types of antibiotics that your doctor might typically prescribe for pneumonia include the following:

Antibiotics prescribed for children with pneumonia include the following:

  • Infants, preschoolers, and school-aged children with suspected bacterial pneumonia may be treated with amoxicillin.
  • Children with suspected atypical pneumonia can be treated with macrolides.
  • Children allergic to penicillin will be treated with other antibiotics as needed for the specific pathogen.
  • Hospitalized, immunized children can be treated with ampicillin or penicillin G.
  • Hospitalized children and infants who are not fully vaccinated may be treated with a cephalosporin.
  • Hospitalized children with suspected M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae infection may be treated with combination therapy of a macrolide and a beta-lactam antibiotic .
  • Hospitalized children with suspected S. aureus infections might be treated with a combination of Vancocin or clindamycin and a beta-lactam.

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What Are The Causes Of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is most often caused by a viruses or bacteria. When an infection occurs, the body sets off an inflammatory response to fight off invaders. In some rare cases, pneumonia can be attributed to fungus or mold.

Some individuals are more at risk of suffering from pneumonia, among others:

  • children
  • individuals who suffer from respiratory diseases
  • smokers
  • individuals whose immune system is weak due to various conditions

A recent viral infection, such as the flu or COVID-19 also predisposes one to pneumonia.

What Are The Best Antibiotics For Pneumonia

Pneumonia: Treatment: Hospital patients

When a person contracts pneumonia, the air sacs in one or both lungs, called alveoli, fill with pus or fluid.

This fluid can make it difficult to breathe. While pneumonia can be mild, it can also cause severe illness, especially in young children, older adults, and those with other medical problems.

In 2019, more than 40,000 Americans died of pneumonia.

Pneumonia happnes when a virus or bacteria thats living in your bodyin your nose, sinuses, or mouth, for examplespreads into your lungs.

You may also directly breathe the virus or bacteria into your lungs, triggering pneumonia.

Pneumonia is typically caused by viruses or bacteria.

Antibiotics wont help with viral pneumonia.

Bacterial pneumonia is more common, and usually more severe, and can sometimes occur secondary to a viral infection.

If your doctor suspects that you have bacterial pneumonia, they will treat you with antibiotics.

In this article, Ill explain how pneumonia is diagnosed, and when and how its treated with antibiotics.

Ill also talk about when pneumonia requires hospitalization.

Ill also tell you when you should talk to your doctor to see if a persistent cough, shortness of breath, or other upper respiratory symptoms could be pneumonia.

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Going To The Hospital

If you have severe pneumonia, you may have to go to the hospital:

  • In most cases of pneumonia you get in your daily life, such as at school or work , it is not necessary to go to the hospital.footnote 2
  • About one-third of people with community-based pneumonia are age 65 or older.footnote 2 Older adults are treated in the hospital more often and stay longer for the condition than younger people.footnote 2 Pneumonia is more serious in this group, because they often have and may develop other medical problems.

Clarithromycin May Cause Side Effects Tell Your Doctor If Any Of These Symptoms Are Severe Or Do Not Go Away:

  • diarrhea
  • fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat
  • muscle weakness such as difficulty chewing, talking, or performing daily activities
  • double vision

Clarithromycin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.

If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online or by phone .

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Before Taking This Medicine

You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to tetracycline or similar medicines such as demeclocycline, doxycycline, minocycline, or tigecycline.

To make sure tetracycline is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

  • liver disease or

  • kidney disease.

If you are using tetracycline to treat gonorrhea, your doctor may test you to make sure you do not also have syphilis, another sexually transmitted disease.

Taking this medicine during pregnancy may affect tooth and bone development in the unborn baby. Taking tetracycline during the last half of pregnancy can cause permanent tooth discoloration later in the baby’s life. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or if you become pregnant while using this medicine.

Tetracycline can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy.

Tetracycline can pass into breast milk and may affect bone and tooth development in a nursing infant. Do not breast-feed while you are taking tetracycline.

Children younger than 8 years old should not take tetracycline. Tetracycline can cause permanent tooth discoloration and can also affect a child’s growth.

Why Is This Medication Prescribed

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Clarithromycin is used to treat certain bacterial infections, such as pneumonia , bronchitis , and infections of the ears, sinuses, skin, and throat. It also is used to treat and prevent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection . It is used in combination with other medications to eliminate H. pylori, a bacterium that causes ulcers. Clarithromycin is in a class of medications called macrolide antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

Antibiotics such as clarithromycin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

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How Is Fungal Pneumonia Treated

If the course of the pneumonia is slow and your chest X-ray looks unusual, you may have fungal pneumonia. These conditions can be diagnosed with a blood test that shows your body is making antibodies to the fungus.

More than 10 types of fungi can cause fungal pneumonia, which is more common in people with weakened immune systems.

Several antifungal drugs serve as treatment for pneumonia and can be administered either orally or intravenously.

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