Monday, October 3, 2022

What Shot Do They Give For Pneumonia

What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Exactly

Pneumonia Vaccination

The pneumonia vaccine helps prevent pneumococcal disease, which is any kind of illness caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. That includes pneumonia and meningitis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . There are actually two types of pneumococcal vaccines in the US:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, known as PCV13
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, known as PPSV23

PCV13 protects against 13 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease, the CDC says, and specifically works against the most serious types of pneumococcal disease, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. PPSV23 protects against 23 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease and helps prevent infections like meningitis and bacteremia.

The pneumococcal vaccines can be lifesaving. Pneumococcal pneumonia kills about one in 20 older adults who get it, according to the CDC. The vaccines offer a lot of protection. PCV13 can protect three in four adults ages 65 and up against invasive pneumococcal disease and nine in 20 adults ages 65 and older against pneumococcal pneumonia, per CDC data. One shot of PPSV23 protects up to 17 in 20 healthy adults against invasive pneumococcal disease.

What We’ve Learned About Managing Covid

How we now treat COVID-19 pneumonia compared to 12 months ago makes a significant difference to survival.

Since the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers have made significant advancements in effectively managing COVID-19 induced pneumonia.

“When the COVID-19 outbreak first occurred, we were seeing catastrophic outcomes in patients who were admitted to hospital with rapidly progressive pneumonia. Unfortunately, the treatments that were used empiricallyinitiallywere not effective, and really had no modifying effect on the evolution of COVID-19 pneumonia,” said Conjoint Professor at UNSW Medicine & Health Christine Jenkins.

Professor Jenkins, who is Head of the Respiratory Group at the George Institute for Global Health, explained most people at that time died from respiratory failure. No matter what strategy was implemented, it was not possible to get enough oxygen into the individual’s system and maintain it.

“That’s because when people developed severe pneumonia from COVID-19, their lungs become filled with fluid and inflammatory cells, and some blood vessels developed clots, so the oxygeneven when it was driven in by mechanical ventilationjust couldn’t get through that inflammatory process. The membranes in the lung were very swollen, so people died from respiratory failure.

What we now know about managing COVID-19 pneumonia

Lung disease and COVID-19 pneumonia

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Signs Of Pneumonia Vaccine Side Effects

As with any vaccination, there are potential side effects of the pneumonia vaccination. Common side effects include:

Injection site soreness

As with most shots and vaccinations, you may experience pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site .

Less than 1% of people who receive a pneumonia vaccine develop a fever. If your temperature is above 100.4 F , you have a fever.

Irritability

Irritability is a feeling of agitation. When you’re feeling irritable, you’re more likely to become frustrated or upset. In children, this may present as fussiness.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Omicron Here’s How They Differ In Vaccinated And Unvaccinated Patients

The highly-contagious omicron variant now accounts for most new cases in the United States. And with a surge in COVID-19 cases and intense demand for scarce at-home rapid testswhich don’t differentiate between variantsAmericans experiencing COVID-like symptoms are scrambling to figure out whether they’ve contracted omicron, a previous variant, or just a seasonal cold.

Judith O’Donnell, the chief of infectious disease at Penn Presbyterian Medical Center, spoke to The Inquirer about the latest surge and how omicron symptoms differ among vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. This interview has been edited for length and clarity.

What are the symptoms of Omicron?

We’re still seeing the usual list of symptoms that we would expect with COVID-19: fever, fatigue, cough, shortness of breath, and then loss of smell and taste. Sometimes congestion, runny nose, sometimes nausea and vomiting and sometimes diarrhea.

I think what we are experiencing, though, is for people who are vaccinated, or vaccinated and boosted, we’re not seeing as much fever, if any, as opposed to an unvaccinated person.

There’s been some reporting in the scientific literature that when patients are vaccinated, or vaccinated and boosted, the symptoms in general are much milder. They’re more consistent with a typical cold. There’s a lot of talk in the media about getting a lot more runny noses, or congestions. That does seem to be shown in some of the early scientific studies.

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Diagnosis Of Pneumonia In Dogs

Right a vaccine caused this... and doctors have no idea ...

If your dog is sick, your veterinarian will typically start the visit by reviewing your dog’s medical history and conducting a nose-to-tail physical exam. This exam will include taking their temperature to check for fever and listening closely to the lungs with a stethoscope to detect any abnormal sounds.

Your veterinarian may also need to run additional diagnostic tests to determine what is exactly wrong, such as blood work, urinalysis, and X-rays of the chest and lungs. If it looks like it could be pneumonia, your veterinarian may wash the trachea with fluid, which allows them to collect and identify the type of bacteria that may be causing the infection. Your dog will be sedated or put under anesthesia during this treatment.

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How Can Walking Pneumonia Be Prevented

Unfortunately, no vaccines are available to prevent walking pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Even if you have recovered from walking pneumonia, you will not become immune, so it is possible to become infected again in the future.

Tips for preventing walking pneumonia include:

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you sneeze or cough. If a tissue isnt available, sneeze or cough into the inside of your elbow or sleeve. Never sneeze or cough into your hands. Place used tissues into a waste basket.
  • Wash your hands often with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available.
  • Wear a mask around sick people if you have respiratory conditions or other chronic health conditions that would make getting pneumonia even riskier for you.
  • Get your annual Influenza shot. Bacterial pneumonia can develop after a case of the flu.
  • Ask your doctor about the pneumococcal vaccine. Two types of vaccines are available, Prevnar 13® and Pneumovax 23®. Each vaccine is recommended for people at different age points or who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease, including pneumonia.

How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person

Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.

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Are Vaccines Available To Prevent Pneumonia

Yes, there are two types of vaccines specifically approved to prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Similar to a flu shot, these vaccines wont protect against all types of pneumonia, but if you do come down with pneumonia, its less likely to be as severe or potentially life-threatening especially for people who are at increased risk for pneumonia.

  • Bacterial pneumonia: Two pneumonia vaccines, Pneumovax23® and Prevnar13®, protect against the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia.
  • Pneumovax23® protects against 23 different types of pneumococcal bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children over 2 years of age who are at increased risk for pneumonia.
  • Prevnar13® protects against 13 types of pneumonia bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children under 2 years of age. Ask your healthcare provider about these vaccines.
  • Viral pneumonia: Get a flu vaccine once every year. Flu vaccines are prepared to protect against that years virus strain. Having the flu can make it easier to get bacterial pneumonia.
  • If you have children, ask their doctor about other vaccines they should get. Several childhood vaccines help prevent infections caused by the bacteria and viruses that can lead to pneumonia.

    How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works

    ASK UNMC What is the new recommendation on pneumonia vaccines for older adults?

    Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

    Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.

    They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.

    More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.

    The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

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    The Different Types Of Pneumococcal Vaccine

    The type of pneumococcal vaccine you’re given depends on your age and health. There are 2 types.

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is used to vaccinate children under 2 years old as part of the NHS vaccination schedule. It’s known by the brand name Prevenar 13.

    Children at risk of pneumococcal infections can have the PPV vaccine from the age of 2 years onwards. The PPV vaccine is not very effective in children under the age of 2.

    What Is Walking Pneumonia

    Walking pneumonia is a mild form of pneumonia . This non-medical term has become a popular description because you may feel well enough to be walking around, carrying out your daily tasks and not even realize you have pneumonia.

    Most of the time, walking pneumonia is caused by an atypical bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which can live and grow in the nose, throat, windpipe and lungs . It can be treated with antibiotics.

    Scientists call walking pneumonia caused by mycoplasma atypical because of the unique features of the bacteria itself. Several factors that make it atypical include:

    • Milder symptoms
    • Natural resistance to medicines that would normally treat bacterial infections
    • Often mistaken for a virus because they lack the typical cell structure of other bacteria

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    Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

    • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
    • Feel dizzy
    • Have vision changes
    • Have ringing in the ears
  • Some people get severe pain in the shoulder and have difficulty moving the arm where the doctor gave the shot. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million shots. These types of reactions would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.
  • How Much Do Pneumovax 23 And Prevnar 13 Cost

    QUESTION: What and when to get a pneumonia shot for 65 and ...

    Pneumovax 23 and Prevnar 13 can be quite expensive without insurance. One dose of Pneumovax 23 currently costs around $135 cash price, while one dose of Prevnar 13 costs around $250 cash price. With a GoodRx coupon, you might be able to reduce your cost for these to around $90 and $195, respectively. Read here for information on how to use a GoodRx coupon for vaccines.

    All health insurance marketplace plans under the Affordable Care Act, and most other private insurance plans, must cover pneumococcal vaccines without charging a copayment or coinsurance when an in-network provider administers the vaccine even if you have not met a yearly deductible. Medicare does not cover either vaccine.

    Remember: The recommendations for who should get a pneumonia vaccination are based on risk factors and age, so be sure to talk to your doctor if you think you might need one. You should be able to receive both Pneumovax 23 and Prevnar 13 at your local pharmacy. Depending on which state you live in, these vaccines may not require a prescription. Be sure to reach out to your pharmacist for more information. The CDC has more information about these vaccinations here.

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    Types Of Antibiotics For Pneumonia

    There are multiple types of antibiotics that work in slightly different ways. Some are more commonly used to treat pneumonia than others based on things like:

    • The bacteria causing infection
    • The severity of the infection
    • If youre in a patient group at greatest risk from pneumonia

    The types of antibiotics that your doctor might typically prescribe for pneumonia include the following:

    Antibiotics prescribed for children with pneumonia include the following:

    • Infants, preschoolers, and school-aged children with suspected bacterial pneumonia may be treated with amoxicillin.
    • Children with suspected atypical pneumonia can be treated with macrolides.
    • Children allergic to penicillin will be treated with other antibiotics as needed for the specific pathogen.
    • Hospitalized, immunized children can be treated with ampicillin or penicillin G.
    • Hospitalized children and infants who are not fully vaccinated may be treated with a cephalosporin.
    • Hospitalized children with suspected M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae infection may be treated with combination therapy of a macrolide and a beta-lactam antibiotic .
    • Hospitalized children with suspected S. aureus infections might be treated with a combination of Vancocin or clindamycin and a beta-lactam.

    When To Get The Vaccine

    Thereâs no such thing as pneumonia season, like flu season. If you and your doctor decide that you need to have a pneumonia vaccine, you can get it done at any time of the year. If itâs flu season, you can even get a pneumonia vaccine at the same time that you get a flu vaccine, as long as you receive each shot in a different arm.

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    Will My Child Need To Go To Hospital

    Your doctor will assess if you child should be looked after in hospital based on their symptoms and other factors, including their age. Babies under 6 months old are more likely to be admitted to hospital.

    Your doctor will take into account if your child:

    • has difficulty breathing
    • is dehydrated because they wont feed or drink
    • cant take antibiotics through their mouth
    • is breathing very fast
    • has low oxygen levels in their blood
    • is not responding to the prescribed antibiotics
    • has another lung, heart or immune deficiency condition

    In hospital your child may be given antibiotics through a drip. If they need it, they may be given oxygen to help them breathe more easily. If they are dehydrated, they may also be given fluids through a drip.

    About The Pneumonia Vaccine

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and flu vaccines | Respiratory system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

    Pneumonia is a common enough illness, but its one that can have potentially devastating reactions. Fortunately, theres a way to prevent the serious side effects of the disease, and possibly prevent someone from getting it to begin with.

    The pneumonia vaccine is a safe way to prevent most cases, and effectively lowers the chances of catching the disease entirely. People who do get pneumonia after getting the pneumonia vaccination anyway will have a much milder case of the disease if they do happen to contract it.

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    Is Walking Pneumonia Contagious If So How Is It Spread And Who Is Most At Risk

    Yes, walking pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is contagious . When an infected person coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets containing the bacteria become airborne and can be inhaled by others who are nearby.

    The infection can be easily spread in crowded or shared living spaces such as homes, schools, dormitories and nursing homes. It tends to affect younger adults and school-aged children more than older adults.

    The risk of getting more severe pneumonia is even higher among those who have existing respiratory conditions such as:

    The symptoms of walking pneumonia may come on slowly, beginning one to four weeks after exposure. During the later stages of the illness, symptoms may worsen, the fever may become higher, and coughing may bring up discolored phlegm .

    What’s The Link Between Covid

    A quick refresher first: COVID-19 is a serious respiratory illness caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. It can lead to a range of intense symptoms, including a cough, fever, trouble breathing, and loss of taste or smell, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Pneumonia is an infection of the tiny air sacs in the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people, the CDC says.

    Some patients with COVID-19 develop pneumoniain fact, the World Health Organization first called the virus -infected pneumonia , before shortening the name to COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was also first identified in Wuhan, China due to cases of “pneumonia of unknown etiology,” or unknown cause, the WHO reported in January 2020.

    It’s not uncommon to develop pneumonia as the result of any virus, Raymond Casciari, MD, a pulmonologist at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange, California, tells Health. In the case of COVID-19, the virus can damage your alveoli and cause fluid to build in your lungs as your body fights the infection, he explains. That can also lead to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome , which is a serious form of respiratory failure that makes the alveoli fill with fluid. “The immune system starts attacking the lung itself, which results in ARDS,” Dr. Casciari says.

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    Why Is This Medication Prescribed

    Ceftazidime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections meningitis and other brain and spinal cord infections and abdominal , skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.

    Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

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