Monday, October 3, 2022

What’s Pneumonia Caused By

How Can Parents Help

Pneumonia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Kids with pneumonia need to get plenty of rest and drink lots of liquids while the body works to fight the infection.

If your child has bacterial pneumonia and the doctor prescribed antibiotics, give the medicine on schedule for as long as directed. Keeping up with the medicine doses will help your child recover faster and help prevent the infection from spreading to others in the family. If your child is wheezing, the doctor might recommend using breathing treatments.

Ask the doctor before you use a medicine to treat your child’s cough. Over-the-counter cough and cold medicines are not recommended for any kids under 6 years old. If your child doesnt seem to be feeling better in a few days, call your doctor for advice.

Follow Your Treatment Plan

It is important that you take all your medicines as your doctor prescribes. If you are using antibiotics, continue to take the medicine until it is all gone. You may start to feel better before you finish the medicine, but you should continue to take it. If you stop too soon, the bacterial infection and your pneumonia may come back. It may also become resistant to the antibiotic, making treatment more difficult.

Difficulty Swallowing Or Coughing

Trouble swallowing or a reduced ability to cough increase the risk that youll accidentally inhale food or liquid particles into the airway from the throat, which can cause aspiration pneumonia. These problems can stem from a stroke, Parkinsons disease, a brain injury, or other neurological conditions. You can also experience dysphagia as a side effect of certain medications, including anticholinergics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, diuretics, and levodopa.

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What Are The Treatments For Pneumonia

Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia, which germ is causing it, and how severe it is:

  • Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia.
  • In some cases, your provider may prescribe antiviral medicines for viral pneumonia
  • Antifungal medicines treat other types of fungal pneumonia

You may need to be treated in a hospital if your symptoms are severe or if you are at risk for complications. While there, you may get additional treatments. For example, if your blood oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen therapy.

It may take time to recover from pneumonia. Some people feel better within a week. For other people, it can take a month or more.

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

Pneumonia: Causes and Preventive measures

Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae . People with pneumococcal disease can spread the bacteria to others when they cough or sneeze.

Pneumococcus bacteria can cause infections in many parts of the body, including

  • Lungs
  • Brain and spinal cord tissue
  • Blood

Symptoms of pneumococcal infection depend on the part of the body affected. Symptoms can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion, increased sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death. You can find a full list of symptoms for each part of the body that is affected on the symptoms and complications of pneumococcal disease page.

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What Is The Treatment For Pneumonia

Antibiotic medications are the treatment of choice for pneumonia caused by bacterial and fungal infections. The exact choice of medications depends on many factors, including the following:

  • The organism responsible for the infection
  • The likelihood that the organism is resistant to certain antibiotics
  • The patient’s underlying health condition

About 80% of cases of CAP can be managed at home with the patient taking oral antibiotics. There are numerous treatment regimens available. Initial treatment is called empiric treatment and is based upon the organisms most likely to be responsible for the illness. Once the exact organism has been identified in the laboratory and susceptibility testing performed to determine which antibiotics are effective, the treatment regimen can be further individualized. Over-the-counterpain and fever-reducing medications may be recommended for some people in addition to antibiotics or antiviral drugs for symptom relief. Do not take cough or cold medications when suffering from pneumonia without a doctor’s approval.

In around 20% of cases, CAP must be managed in the hospital, typically with intravenous antibiotics initially. HAP care is managed in the hospital, typically with intravenous antibiotics.

What Are The 4 Stages Of Pneumonia

  • As a result of accumulating infectious fluids that have been incorporated into the inhaled sacs, during the congestion phase, the lungs become extremely heavy and congested.
  • The second stage involves red hepatization.
  • The third stage of the hepatization process involves graying the skin.
  • Resolution Stage 4 is completed.
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    Are Vaccines Available To Prevent Pneumonia

    Yes, there are two types of vaccines specifically approved to prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Similar to a flu shot, these vaccines wont protect against all types of pneumonia, but if you do come down with pneumonia, its less likely to be as severe or potentially life-threatening especially for people who are at increased risk for pneumonia.

    • Bacterial pneumonia: Two pneumonia vaccines, Pneumovax23® and Prevnar13®, protect against the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia.
    • Pneumovax23® protects against 23 different types of pneumococcal bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children over 2 years of age who are at increased risk for pneumonia.
    • Prevnar13® protects against 13 types of pneumonia bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children under 2 years of age. Ask your healthcare provider about these vaccines.
  • Viral pneumonia: Get a flu vaccine once every year. Flu vaccines are prepared to protect against that years virus strain. Having the flu can make it easier to get bacterial pneumonia.
  • If you have children, ask their doctor about other vaccines they should get. Several childhood vaccines help prevent infections caused by the bacteria and viruses that can lead to pneumonia.

    Take Steps To Help Your Body Recover

    Pneumonia: types, causes, and treatment

    The following steps can help your body recover from pneumonia.

    • Choose heart-healthy foods, because good nutrition helps your body recover.
    • Drink plenty of fluids to help you stay hydrated.
    • Dont drink alcohol or use illegal drugs. Alcohol and illegal drugs weaken your immune system and can raise the risk of complications from pneumonia.
    • Dont smoke and avoid secondhand smoke. Breathing in smoke can worsen your pneumonia. Visit Smoking and Your Heart and Your Guide to a Healthy Heart. For free help quitting smoking, you may call the National Cancer Institutes Smoking Quitline at 1-877-44U-QUIT .
    • Get plenty of sleep. Good quality sleep can help your body rest and improve the response of your immune system. For more information on sleep, visit our How Sleep Works health topic.
    • Get light physical activity. Moving around can help you regain your strength and improve your recovery. However, you may still feel short of breath, and activity that is too strenuous may make you dizzy. Talk to your doctor about how much activity is right for you.
    • Sit upright to help you feel more comfortable and breathe more easily.
    • Take a couple of deep breaths several times a day.

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    How Viruses Cause Pneumonia

    Approximately half of all pneumonia cases are believed to be caused by viruses. Viral pneumonia tends to come on more slowly than bacterial pneumonia, with initial symptoms that may seem like a cold or the flu. Most people recover from viral pneumonia within a week or two, though some symptoms, like cough or tiredness, can hang around for longer than that. These are some of the most common viruses that cause pneumonia:

    Youll notice that several of these viruses have vaccines available to prevent themall the more reason to get your annual flu shot and make sure you are vaccinated against measles and COVID-19.

    Can Pneumonia Be Prevented

    Check with your healthcare provider about getting immunizations. The flu is a common cause of pneumonia. Because of that, getting a flu shot every year can help prevent both the flu and pneumonia.

    There is also a pneumococcal vaccine. It will protect you from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. Children younger than age 5 and adults ages 65 and older should get this shot.

    The pneumococcal shot is also recommended for all children and adults who are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions.

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    Is There A Vaccine For Pneumonia

    There isnt a vaccine for all types of pneumonia, but 2 vaccines are available. These help prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. The first is recommended for all children younger than 5 years of age. The second is recommended for anyone age 2 or older who is at increased risk for pneumonia. Getting the pneumonia vaccine is especially important if you:

    • Are 65 years of age or older.
    • Smoke.
    • Have certain chronic conditions, such as asthma, lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, sickle cell disease, or cirrhosis.
    • Have a weakened immune system because of HIV/AIDS, kidney failure, a damaged or removed spleen, a recent organ transplant, or receiving chemotherapy.
    • Have cochlear implants .

    The pneumococcal vaccines cant prevent all cases of pneumonia. But they can make it less likely that people who are at risk will experience the severe, and possibly life-threatening, complications of pneumonia.

    Can Pneumonia Be Prevented Or Avoided

    Pneumonia : Pneumonia Is An Infection Of The One Or Both ...

    There are many factors that can raise your risk for developing pneumonia. These include:

    People who have any of the following conditions are also at increased risk:

    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • asthma
    • sickle cell disease

    You can help prevent pneumonia by doing the following:

    • Get the flu vaccine each year. People can develop bacterial pneumonia after a case of the flu. You can reduce this risk by getting the yearly flu shot.
    • Get the pneumococcal vaccine. This helps prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria.
    • Practice good hygiene. Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
    • Dont smoke. Smoking damages your lungs and makes it harder for your body to defend itself from germs and disease. If you smoke, talk to your family doctor about quitting as soon as possible.
    • Practice a healthy lifestyle. Eat a balanced diet full of fruits and vegetables. Exercise regularly. Get plenty of sleep. These things help your immune system stay strong.
    • Avoid sick people. Being around people who are sick increases your risk of catching what they have.

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    What Stands Out About Yale Medicines Approach To Pneumonia

    Pneumonia is a common infection in both children and adults and can often be easily treated. However, if specialized care is required, Yale Medicine physicians practice at both Yale New Haven Hospital and Yale New Haven Childrens Hospital.

    Furthermore, our researchers are involved in developing ways to more quickly and accurately diagnose lung infections through the Yale Center for Pulmonary Infection Research and Treatment . We dont tend to think of pneumonia as a chronic condition. But some patients end up with longer-term problems, says Dr. Dela Cruz, director of the CPIRT. The center focuses on finding new potential treatment options and running clinical trials to better understand the disease.

    How Bacteria Causes Pneumonia

    You can get bacterial pneumonia by itself, or it can come on the heels of a respiratory virus, like a cold or the flu, that make your lungs susceptible to a secondary bacterial infection. There are two reasons why having a virus heightens your risk for bacterial pneumonia: One, your immune system is already embattled from fighting the virus, making it less able to defend against bacteria and two, viruses can cause acute damage to your airways that leaves them more vulnerable to a bacterial invasion.

    Unlike viral pneumonia, which tends to develop gradually, pneumonia caused by bacteria usually comes on fast and strong. Another difference: Bacterial pneumonia is often more serious and can affect just one portion of a single lung. Left untreated, bacterial pneumonia can lead to scarring of your lung tissue, or the infection can spread to other vital organs. The earlier you get diagnosed and start treatment, the less damage will be done. Recovery from bacterial pneumonia may take up to three weeks.

    Common types of bacterial pneumonia include:

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    How Is Aspiration Pneumonia Diagnosed

    Generally, the first thing your provider will do in any situation is take a complete medical history and perform a physical examination. Theyll ask you about your current signs and symptoms. One thing that is a little tricky about aspiration pneumonia is that often no one actually sees you breathe in an object or food or saliva.

    In addition to taking note of your symptoms, your provider will order tests such as:

    What About The Influenza And Pneumococcal Vaccines

    Pneumonia [Overview] – Causes, Types, Signs & Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment [Patient Education]

    Because the flu is a common cause of pneumonia, consider getting your flu vaccine. This is one of the reasons we recommend the flu vaccine, because not only can you get the flu virus and feel really miserable, but you can end up with a secondary bacterial infection which could be very serious or even fatal, Dr. Cameron says.

    There is also a pneumococcal vaccine, which offers protection from a common form of bacterial pneumonia. The shot is recommended for children younger than 5 and adults 65 and older. It is also advised for children and adults who are at an increased risk of pneumonia due to other health conditions.

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    Medical History And Exam

    Youll be asked to describe your symptoms, including when they started and how quickly they came on. The doctor will also do a physical exam, including listening to your lungs with a stethoscope while you breathe in and out. The lungs of people with pneumonia sometimes make a crackling or bubbling sound , an indicator that theres fluid present. Youll probably also have your pulse checked to see if its unusually fast.

    How Is Pneumonia Spread From Person To Person

    Pneumonia is spread when droplets of fluid containing the pneumonia bacteria or virus are launched in the air when someone coughs or sneezes and then inhaled by others. You can also get pneumonia from touching an object previously touched by the person with pneumonia or touching a tissue used by the infected person and then touching your mouth or nose.

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    How Is Walking Pneumonia Different

    Walking pneumonia, also known as atypical pneumonia, is caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria. It usually causes cold-like symptoms, in addition to a fever and a hacking cough. It is most common in school-aged children and young adults, says Annette Cameron, MD, a Yale Medicine pediatrician.

    Because this type of pneumonia typically causes milder symptoms, it may go undiagnosed for a while, especially if the child is able to participate in normal activities and isnt as visibly sick as he or she would be with other forms of pneumonia. And thats why its called walking pneumonia, Dr. Cameron says. It might just be a little bit of malaise. Sometimes you can have community-acquired, or bacterial pneumonia, along with walking pneumonia, in which case we would just treat both of them.

    What Is The Prognosis And Recovery Time Of Pneumonia Can You Die

    Pneumonia caused by flu, illustration

    Most people with pneumonia improve after three to five days of antibiotic treatment, but a mild cough and fatigue can last longer, up to a month. Patients who required treatment in a hospital may take longer to see improvement.

    Pneumonia can also be fatal. The mortality rate is up to 30% for patients with severe pneumonia who require treatment in an intensive care unit. Overall, around 5%-10% of patients who are treated in a hospital setting die from the disease. Pneumonia is more likely to be fatal in the elderly or those with chronic medical conditions or a weakened immune system.

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    What Diseases Causes Pneumonia

    There are many ways to get pneumonia including pneumonia caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. An increase in fevers and pneumonias that manifest as respiratory syncytial virus or influenza is common in the United States. Among the many types of bacteria that produce pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae is generally the most common.

    How Do The Lungs Work

    Your lungs main job is to get oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide. This happens during breathing. You breathe 12 to 20 times per minute when you are not sick. When you breathe in, air travels down the back of your throat and passes through your voice box and into your windpipe . Your trachea splits into two air passages . One bronchial tube leads to the left lung, the other to the right lung. For the lungs to perform their best, the airways need to be open as you breathe in and out. Swelling and mucus can make it harder to move air through the airways, making it harder to breathe. This leads to shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and feeling more tired than normal.

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    How Is Aspiration Pneumonia Treated

    Aspiration pneumonia is treated primarily with antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics depends on several things, including any allergies to penicillin and where the pneumonia was acquired. Hospital-acquired infections must be treated with antibiotics that are effective against many types of bacteria.

    Even though aspiration pneumonitis isnt an infection, your provider may start antibiotic therapy, depending on the clinical situation and underlying medical conditions.

    Additional treatment might include oxygen therapy or, in life-threatening cases, mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation means that a machine is breathing for you.

    Preventing further aspiration is an important part of treatment, since every episode of aspiration can lead to inflammation or infection.

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