Thursday, September 29, 2022

When Is A Pneumonia Shot Recommended

What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pneumococcal Immunisation

ACIP Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for 2022: Whats New? | ACP

All medicines and vaccines can have side effects. Sometimes they are serious, most of the time theyre not.

For most people, the chance of having a serious side effect from a vaccine is much lower than the chance of serious harm if you caught the disease.

Talk to your doctor about possible side effects of pneumococcal vaccines, or if you or your child have symptoms after having a pneumococcal vaccine that worry you.

Common side effects of pneumococcal vaccines include:

  • pain, redness and swelling where the needle went in
  • fever
  • reduced appetite
  • body aches.

How Is It Treated

Antibiotics are the usual treatment, because the organism may not be found. But if the pneumonia is caused by a virus, antivirals may be given. Sometimes, antibiotics may be used to prevent complications.

Antibiotics usually cure pneumonia caused by bacteria. Be sure to take the antibiotics exactly as instructed. Do not stop taking them just because you feel better. You need to take the full course of antibiotics.

Pneumonia can make you feel very sick. But after you take antibiotics, you should start to feel much better, although you will probably not be back to normal for several weeks. Call your doctor if you do not start to feel better after 2 to 3 days of antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you feel worse.

There are things you can do to feel better during your treatment. Get plenty of rest and sleep, and drink lots of liquids. Do not smoke. If your cough keeps you awake at night, talk to your doctor about using cough medicine.

You may need to go to the hospital if you have bad symptoms, a weak immune system, or another serious illness.

When To See A Doctor

A person who is over 65 years of age should talk to their doctor about which pneumonia vaccine may be best for them. The doctor can help determine whether they should get the vaccination, which vaccination to get, and when to get it.

Parents and caregivers of young children should talk to a pediatrician about the schedule for the pneumonia vaccination. The pediatrician can also address any questions or concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccination.

A person does not need to see a doctor for mild reactions to the vaccine, such as tenderness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.

However, if a person experiences any life threatening side effects, they should seek emergency help immediately.

Signs and symptoms of allergic reactions in children may include:

  • respiratory distress, such as wheezing

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Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement

The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.

1. What

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .

For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.

NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.

2. Who

Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.

3. How

4. Why

What Are The Pneumonia Vaccines

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There are two FDA-approved vaccines that protect against pneumonia:

  • 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or PCV13

  • 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or PPSV23

These immunizations are called pneumonia vaccines because they prevent pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. They are also known as pneumococcal vaccines because they protect against a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus. Although there are many viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause pneumonia, pneumococcus is the most common cause. Pneumococcus can also cause infections in other parts of the body.

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Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine And When Should It Be Given

The PCV7 vaccine that covered seven strains of pneumococcal bacteria, has now been updated to the PCV13 vaccine, which covers 13 strains. A PCV series begun with PCV7 should be completed with PCV13. A single additional dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children 14â59 months who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7 and for all children 60â71 months with underlying specific medical conditions who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7.

The PCV vaccine is recommended for the following children:

  • All infants younger than 24 months should receive four doses of the vaccine, the first one at 2 months. The next two shots should be given at 4 months and 6 months, with a final booster that should be given at 12 to 15 months. Children who do not get their shot at these times should still get the vaccine. The number of doses and time between doses will depend on the child’s age.
  • Healthy children ages 2 through 4 years who did not complete the four doses should receive one dose of the vaccine.

The PPSV vaccine is recommended for any adult ages 19 through 64 who smokes or has asthma and anyone ages 2 through 64 who is taking a drug or treatment that affects the body’s immune system. Examples would be long-term use of steroids, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.

In addition, anyone ages 2 through 64 who has one of the following health conditions that affect the immune system should be vaccinated with PPSV:

  • leaks of cerebrospinal fluid
  • cochlear implant

How The Pneumococcal Vaccine Works

Both types of pneumococcal vaccine encourage your body to produce antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body to neutralise or destroy disease-carrying organisms and toxins.

They protect you from becoming ill if you’re infected with the bacteria.

More than 90 different strains of the pneumococcal bacterium have been identified, although most of these strains do not cause serious infections.

The childhood vaccine protects against 13 strains of the pneumococcal bacterium, while the adult vaccine protects against 23 strains.

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Interaction With Haemophilus Influenzae

Historically, has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be found in the human upper respiratory system. A study of competition revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with . However, in a study adding both bacteria to the of a within two weeks, only H. influenzae survives further analysis showed that neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae.

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

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Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus. People can be infected with the bacteria, or they can carry it in their throat, and not be ill. Those carriers can still spread it, primarily in droplets from their nose or mouth when they breathe, cough, or sneeze.

Depending on what organ or part of the body is infected, pneumococcal disease will cause any of several serious illnesses, including:

  • Bacterial meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord that can lead to confusion, coma, and death as well as other physical effects, such as blindness or paralysis
  • Pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that creates cough, fever, and difficulty breathing
  • Otitis media, a middle ear infection that can cause pain, swelling, sleeplessness, fever, and irritability
  • Bacteremia, a dangerous infection of the blood stream
  • Sinus infections

There are more than 6,000 deaths each year in the U.S. as a result of pneumococcal disease. More than half of those deaths are in adults who, according to CDC recommendations, should have been vaccinated.

In children under age 5, infection with the pneumococcus bacteria results in approximately 480 cases of meningitis and 4,000 cases of bacteremia or other invasive infection per year. A major problem in very young children is that the classic symptoms of meningitis and pneumonia are often not present, making the disease hard to recognize.

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Patients In Health Care Institutions

Residents of long-term care facilities should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Recommendations for Use for information about pneumococcal vaccination of individuals at increased risk of IPD. Refer to Immunization of Patients in Health Care Institutions in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of patients in health care institutions.

The Different Types Of Pneumococcal Vaccine

The type of pneumococcal vaccine you’re given depends on your age and health. There are 2 types.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is used to vaccinate children under 2 years old as part of the NHS vaccination schedule. It’s known by the brand name Prevenar 13.

Children at risk of pneumococcal infections can have the PPV vaccine from the age of 2 years onwards. The PPV vaccine is not very effective in children under the age of 2.

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Are The Pneumonia Vaccines Safe

Yes, pneumonia vaccines are safe. Like all vaccines, they go through rigorous scientific testing and review. Although both pneumococcal vaccines can cause mild side effects, severe reactions to the vaccines are rare. In one study of adults over age 70 who received the PCV13 and PPSV23 vaccines, there was only one adverse event that was related to the vaccine.

Allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, but they can occur and may be serious. If you have had an allergic reaction to one of the ingredients in the pneumococcal vaccines or to a prior dose of a pneumococcal vaccine, you should not get vaccinated without talking to your healthcare provider first.

If you have questions about whether the pneumonia vaccines are safe for you, discuss this with your healthcare provider. You can also find information about pneumococcal vaccine safety here.

What Is A Pneumococcal Vaccine

Vaccinations

A pneumococcal vaccine is an injection that can prevent pneumococcal disease. A pneumococcal disease is any illness that is caused by pneumococcal bacteria, including pneumonia. In fact, the most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria. This type of bacteria can also cause ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis.

Adults age 65 or older are amongst the highest risk groups for getting pneumococcal disease.

To prevent pneumococcal disease, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine .

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Persons With Chronic Diseases

Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

Asplenia or hyposplenia

Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis

Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

Neurologic disorders

Chronic lung disease, including asthma

Chronic heart disease

Chronic liver disease

Endocrine and metabolic diseases

Non-malignant hematologic disorders

Cochlear implants

How Can You Prevent Pneumonia

Experts recommend immunization for children and adults. Children get the pneumococcal vaccine as part of their routine shots. If you are 65 or older or you have a long-term health problem, it’s a good idea to get a pneumococcal vaccine. It may not keep you from getting pneumonia. But if you do get pneumonia, you probably won’t be as sick. You can also get an influenza vaccine to prevent the flu, because sometimes people get pneumonia after having the flu.

You can also lower your chances of getting pneumonia by staying away from people who have the flu, respiratory symptoms, or chickenpox. You may get pneumonia after you have one of these illnesses. Wash your hands often. This helps prevent the spread of viruses and bacteria that may cause pneumonia.

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What Increases Your Risk

You are more likely to get pneumonia if you:

  • Smoke. Cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor for pneumonia in healthy young people.
  • Have another medical condition, especially lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.
  • Are younger than 1 year of age or older than 65.
  • Have an impaired immune system.
  • Take medicine called a proton pump inhibitor that reduces the amount of stomach acid.footnote 3, footnote 4
  • Drink excessive amounts of alcohol.
  • Recently had a cold or the flu.

You are more likely to have complications of pneumonia and need to go to the hospital if you:

  • Are older than 65.
  • Have some other illness , or have gone to the hospital for a medical problem within the last 3 months.
  • Have had your spleen removed or do not have a working spleen .
  • Have an alcohol use problem.
  • Have a weak immune system.
  • Reside in a place where people live close together, such as a university dorm or nursing home.

Persons New To Canada

Pneumonia shots

Health care providers who see persons newly arrived in Canada should review the immunization status and update immunization for these individuals, as necessary. Review of pneumococcal vaccination status is particularly important for persons from areas of the world where sickle cell disease is present, as persons with sickle cell disease are at risk of serious pneumococcal infections. In many countries outside of Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is in limited use. Refer to Immunization of Persons New to Canada in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people who are new to Canada.

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How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . This vaccine joins a protein which helps build immunity. Infants and very young children do not respond to polysaccharide antigens, but linkage to this protein enables the developing immune system to recognize and process polysaccharide antigens, leading to production of antibody. It helps protect against disease from13 types of Streptococcal pneumoniae capsular serotypes that are the most common cause of serious infection. Typically, children receive three doses and adults at high risk of severe pneumococcal infection receive one dose.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . This vaccine looks like certain bacteria. This stimulates the body to build protection against the 23 serotypes of Streptococcal pneumonia contained in the vaccine. These 23 serotypes now represent at least 50% to 60% of pneumococcal disease isolates in adults. Most people receive a single dose, with one to two boosters recommended for some.
  • Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

    Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and should be started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Pneumococcal vaccines may be given, regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccines, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with inadequate immunization records.

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    What You Should Know About Pneumonia

    Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs that typically stems from several kinds of germs, most often bacteria and viruses.

    Symptoms can develop gradually or suddenly. They include:

    • Fever.
    • Chest pain.
    • Loss of appetite.

    Early detection is often challenging because many people with these symptoms assume they have a cold or the flu.

    Its important to also note that the vaccine helps protect against some but not all bacterial pneumonia.

    There are dozens of different types of bacterial pneumonia, says Dr. Suri. The vaccine will certainly reduce your risk of the most common bacterial pneumonia.

    Ppsv23 Vaccination In At

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    It is recommended that at-risk children receive immunization with PPSV23 after they finish an immunization series with conjugated vaccines. In sickle cell pediatric patients, higher titers of the 7 serotypes contained in PCV7 were observed in patients receiving immunization with PCV7 series followed by PPSV23 compared to patients who received the PCV7 series alone. In HIV-positive pediatric patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, a series of two PCV7 vaccinations followed by a PPSV23 vaccination increased antibody titers. Due to increased titers from PPVS23 vaccination, children who are immunocompromised should receive a single immunization with PPSV23 after the PCV13 vaccination series. For children who have sickle cell disease and/or functional or anatomical asplenia, two doses of PPSV23 are recommended. The first dose is recommended 8 weeks after finishing the PCV13 vaccine series. The second dose is recommended 3 to 5 years after the first dose according to the 2002 National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes Management of Sickle Cell Disease guidelines or 5 years after the first dose according to the 2010 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines., Decreased duration between revaccination with PPSV23 has led to increased occurrences of mild vaccine-related adverse events in adults and should be considered when deciding PPSV23 revaccination scheduling in pediatric sickle cell patients.

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    Babies And The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Babies are routinely vaccinated with a type of pneumococcal vaccine known as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as part of their childhood vaccination programme.

    Babies born on or after 1 January 2020 have 2 injections, which are usually given at:

    • 12 weeks old
    • 1 year old

    Babies born before this date will continue to be offered 3 doses, at 8 and 16 weeks and a booster at 1 year.

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