Who Should Get The Pneumococcal Vaccine And When Should It Be Given
The PCV7 vaccine that covered seven strains of pneumococcal bacteria, has now been updated to the PCV13 vaccine, which covers 13 strains. A PCV series begun with PCV7 should be completed with PCV13. A single additional dose of PCV13 is recommended for all children 14â59 months who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7 and for all children 60â71 months with underlying specific medical conditions who have received an age-appropriate series of PCV7.
The PCV vaccine is recommended for the following children:
- All infants younger than 24 months should receive four doses of the vaccine, the first one at 2 months. The next two shots should be given at 4 months and 6 months, with a final booster that should be given at 12 to 15 months. Children who do not get their shot at these times should still get the vaccine. The number of doses and time between doses will depend on the child’s age.
- Healthy children ages 2 through 4 years who did not complete the four doses should receive one dose of the vaccine.
The PPSV vaccine is recommended for any adult ages 19 through 64 who smokes or has asthma and anyone ages 2 through 64 who is taking a drug or treatment that affects the body’s immune system. Examples would be long-term use of steroids, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.
In addition, anyone ages 2 through 64 who has one of the following health conditions that affect the immune system should be vaccinated with PPSV:
- leaks of cerebrospinal fluid
- cochlear implant
What Are The Important Side Effects Of Pneumovax 23
Common side effects of pneumococcal vaccine are:
- myalgia .
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widelyvarying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of avaccine cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of anothervaccine and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
- In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlledcrossover clinical trial, subjects were enrolled in four different cohortsdefined by age and vaccination status .
- Subjects in each cohort were randomizedto receive intramuscular injections of Pneumovax 23 followed by placebo , or placebo followed by Pneumovax 23, at 30-day intervals.
- The safety of an initial vaccination was comparedto revaccination with Pneumovax 23 for 14 days following each vaccination.
- All 1008 subjects received placebo injections.
- Initial vaccination was evaluated in a total of 444subjects .
- Revaccination was evaluated in 564 subjects .
Serious Adverse Experiences
In this study, 10 subjects had serious adverseexperiences within 14 days of vaccination: 6 who received Pneumovax 23 and 4who received placebo. Serious adverse experiences within 14 days afterPneumovax 23 included
In this clinical study an increased rate of localreactions was observed with revaccination at 3-5 years following initialvaccination.
The most common systemicadverse reactions reported after Pneumovax 23 were as follows:
- myalgia and
Who Should Have The Pneumococcal Vaccine
Anyone can get a pneumococcal infection. But some people are at higher risk of serious illness, so it’s recommended they’re given the pneumococcal vaccination on the NHS.
- adults aged 65 or over
- children and adults with certain long-term health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition
Babies are offered 2 doses of pneumococcal vaccine, at 12 weeks and at 1 year of age.
People aged 65 and over only need a single pneumococcal vaccination. This vaccine is not given annually like the flu jab.
If you have a long-term health condition you may only need a single, one-off pneumococcal vaccination, or a vaccination every 5 years, depending on your underlying health problem.
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What Are The Most Common Side Effects Of Pneumovax 23 And Prevnar 13
Side effects with pneumococcal vaccines are usually mild and go away on their own within a few days.
Common side effects of Prevnar 13 include:
Injection site pain
Common side effects of Pneumovax 23 include:
Injection site pain
Be sure to talk with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms for a prolonged period of time.
Limit Contact With Others
One of the best things you can do when recovering from pneumonia is to limit your contact with others. As weve learned throughout the COVID-19 pandemicwhich can cause viral pneumoniastaying at least six feet away from others reduces the amount of viral or bacterial content they are exposed to as you breathe or talk.
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Will Being Vaccinated Against Flu Pneumonia And Shingles Help Prevent Covid
The short answer is no. But reducing your risk for getting sick with the flu, pneumonia, or shingles which is what these vaccines do makes a lot of sense during the pandemic, Privor-Dumm says.
Lowering your risk for vaccine-preventable diseases will help you avoid doctors offices and hospitals, which will reduce any potential exposure to the coronavirus, Privor-Dumm adds.
Plus, Privor-Dumm says, Preventing serious disease can help keep you out of the hospital at a time when health resources may be needed to treat COVID-19 patients.
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Being Vaccinated
The benefits of vaccination generally far outweigh any risks, Privor-Dumm says. Although vaccines do have some side effects, most are mild and temporary.
The bigger con is getting disease, which may lead to further health complications, she adds. For instance, people who are hospitalized with influenza have a greater likelihood of heart attack or stroke following their illness, and the economic consequences of a serious illness can be catastrophic for some. Thats why its best to prevent disease in the first place.
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Other Types Of Pneumococcal Disease
Pneumonia vaccines protect against pneumococcal infections in other parts of the body. These infections include:
What is it: An infection in the middle part of the ear.
Symptoms: Fever, ear pain, and decreased hearing
What is it: A sinus infection, which is often first caused by a virus. Later, a bacterial infection can set in, causing worsening or ongoing symptoms.
Symptoms: Pain and pressure around the eyes and nose, fever, drainage, and congestion
Who gets it: Sinus infections are more common in adults than in children. Pneumococcus is a common cause and may contribute to up to 35% of sinus infections.
What is it: An infection of the leptomeninges, or the tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be life-threatening, so getting immediate treatment is important.
Symptoms: Fever, confusion, headache, and neck stiffness
Who gets it: Pneumococcal meningitis usually occurs in very young children and older adults. In the U.S., pneumococcus is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in children under age 5.
These infections can also be caused by other bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumococcus, the pneumococcal vaccines, is only one cause.
What If You Never Got Prevnar 13 As A Child
Lets say you never got a vaccine for pneumococcal bacteria when you were little . Most of you will just wait until you turn 65 years old, at which time, youll get Prevnar 13 followed by Pneumovax 23 at least 1 year later.
In certain cases, the timing may be different. Your provider will be able to advise you based on your specific situation.
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Indication For Pneumovax 23
PNEUMOVAX®23 is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of pneumococcal disease caused by the 23 serotypes contained in the vaccine .
PNEUMOVAX 23 is approved for use in persons 50 years of age or older and persons aged 2 years who are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease.
PNEUMOVAX 23 will not prevent disease caused by capsular types of pneumococcus other than those contained in the vaccine.
How Much Do Pneumovax 23 And Prevnar 13 Cost
Pneumovax 23 and Prevnar 13 can be quite expensive without insurance. One dose of Pneumovax 23 currently costs around $135 cash price, while one dose of Prevnar 13 costs around $250 cash price. With a GoodRx coupon, you might be able to reduce your cost for these to around $90 and $195, respectively. Read here for information on how to use a GoodRx coupon for vaccines.
All health insurance marketplace plans under the Affordable Care Act, and most other private insurance plans, must cover pneumococcal vaccines without charging a copayment or coinsurance when an in-network provider administers the vaccine even if you have not met a yearly deductible. Medicare does not cover either vaccine.
Remember: The recommendations for who should get a pneumonia vaccination are based on risk factors and age, so be sure to talk to your doctor if you think you might need one. You should be able to receive both Pneumovax 23 and Prevnar 13 at your local pharmacy. Depending on which state you live in, these vaccines may not require a prescription. Be sure to reach out to your pharmacist for more information. The CDC has more information about these vaccinations here.
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Who Should Get The Vaccine
People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.
Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.
People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.
People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.
More Information About The Vaccine
The PCV is a conjugate vaccine . Sugars are taken from the capsule around the pneumococcal bacteria and joined to a non-toxic diphtheria protein called CRM197. The protein helps to stimulate the immune system in a broader way to respond well to the vaccine. This gives a better immune response in individuals of all ages.
In recent years, there have been several changes to the pneumococcal vaccination schedule in the UK:
- 2002: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protecting against 7 types of pnemococcal bacteria was recommended forimmunisation of babies and children in at-risk groups under the age of two years
- 2003: pneumococcal polysaccharide immunisation was recommended for all people aged 65 and over
- 2004: PCV7 was extended to at-risk babies and children under five years of age
- 2006: PCV7 was added to the routine childhood immunisation programme
- 2010: a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protecting against 13 types of pnemococcal bacteria replaced PCV7.
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Medicare Coverage For The Pneumonia Vaccine
Most preventive vaccines are covered under Part D, the prescription drug part of Medicare. Medicare Part B covers a few specific vaccines, like the two pneumonia vaccines. Medicare Advantage plans, sometimes called Part C, also cover the pneumonia vaccines, along with other vaccines you may need.
If you are enrolled in original Medicare , or a Part C plan, you are automatically eligible for the pneumonia vaccines. Since there are two types of vaccines for pneumonia, you and your doctor will decide if you need one or both vaccines. Well get into the details of the two different types a little later.
Summary Of Information Contained In This Naci Statement
The following highlights key information for immunization providers. Please refer to the remainder of the Statement for details.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that can cause many types of diseases including invasive pneumococcal disease , and community-acquired pneumonia .
For the prevention of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae in adults, two types of vaccines are available in Canada: pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine containing 23 pneumococcal serotypes and pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine containing 13 pneumococcal serotypes.
NACI has been tasked with providing a recommendation from a public health perspective on the use of pneumococcal vaccines in adults who are 65 years of age and older, following the implementation of routine childhood pneumococcal vaccine programs in Canada.
Information in this statement is intended for provinces and territories making decisions for publicly funded, routine, immunization programs for adults who are 65 years of age and older without risk factors increasing their risk of IPD. These recommendations supplement the recent NACI recommendations on this topic that were issued for individual-level decision making in 2016.
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Do The Pneumonia Vaccines Work
The pneumococcal vaccines are very effective at preventing pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in both adults and children. In one large study of over 84,000 adults aged 65 and older, those who received PCV13 were less likely to get pneumococcal pneumonia than were those who received a placebo shot. The vaccine protected about 45% of vaccinated people from getting pneumonia and about 75% from getting an invasive pneumococcal disease. Invasive pneumococcal disease is the most serious type and can be life-threatening.
PPSV23 is also effective and protects at least 50% of vaccinated, healthy adults from invasive pneumococcal infections.
In children, PCV13 has decreased the amount of invasive pneumococcal disease. According to the CDC, PCV13 prevented about 30,000 cases of invasive disease in the first 3 years it was available.
Getting the vaccine not only protects you from getting pneumonia and other types of pneumococcal disease, but also protects vulnerable people around you who cant get vaccinated.
Why Is Pneumonia Dangerous What Are The Possible Complications Of Leaving This Condition Untreated
Pneumonia can usually be treated successfully without leading to complications. However, complications like the ones listed below can develop in some patients, especially those in high-risk groups.
Fluid or pus could get accumulated between the covering of the lungs and the inner lining of the chest wall this is called a pleural effusion . A chest tube may be needed to drain the fluid/pus.
Pus might collect in the lung area infected with pneumonia . Rarely this may require surgery.
Bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and other organs. This is a serious complication since the infection can cause the blood pressure to be dangerously low.
Although most people recover from pneumonia, it can be fatal in some cases. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of patients admitted to a general medical ward, and almost 30 percent of patients with severe infection admitted to an intensive care unit can die.
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Who Should Have The Vaccine
For babies born in the UK after 1st January 2020, the PCV is given at 12 weeks, followed by a booster at 12-13 months. Previously, the PCV was given to babies at 8 and 16 weeks, with a booster at 12-13 months of age. This change means that babies will now receive only two injections at the 8 and 16 week vaccination appointments. This change to the PCV schedule is due to the success of the pneumococcal vaccine programme. High uptake of the PCV has resulted in very low levels of disease caused by pneumococcal bacteria, and the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation agreed that one dose of the vaccine plus a booster should continue to provide good protection for children and the community. See the minutes from the JCVI meeting.
Pneumococcal vaccines are also recommended for people of all ages with some health conditions who are at greater risk of complications from pneumococcal disease. This includes people with:
- immunosuppression, a missing spleen, sickle cell anaemia or coeliac disease
- chronic liver disease, kidney disease or heart disease
- chronic lung conditions
- chronic brain conditions including learning disability
- cerebrospinal fluid leaks
- complement disorders
In the short film below, Dr Andrew Prendergast talks about pneumococcal disease and why it is important to vaccinate against the disease.
How Is The Pneumococcal Vaccine Made
Like the Hib vaccine, the pneumococcal vaccine is made from the sugar coating of the bacteria. Antibodies directed against the pneumococcal polysaccharide protect the child without having to take the risk that their first encounter with natural pneumococcus will result in permanent disabilities or death.
Unfortunately, children less than 2 years old don’t develop very good immune responses to this polysaccharide alone. So the pneumococcal vaccine was made in a manner similar to the Hib vaccine . The pneumococcal polysaccharide is linked to a harmless protein. This version of the vaccine is referred to as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Once linked, young children are able to make an immune response to the polysaccharide. The big difference between the pneumococcal vaccine and the Hib vaccine is the number of different types of polysaccharides that need to be included in the vaccine. Whereas, there is really only one strain of Hib that causes disease in children, there are about 90 different strains of pneumococcus. Fortunately, most of the serious disease in young children is caused by the 13 strains of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine.
The pneumococcal vaccine was found to be highly effective in preventing severe pneumococcal infection in a large trial of children injected with the vaccine. About 40,000 children were included in the initial trial of the vaccine. Since its licensure, the pneumococcal vaccine has been given to millions of children safely.
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