Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Who Is Eligible For The Pneumonia Vaccine

Concerns About Immunisation Side Effects

Chickenpox, pneumococcal jabs to be free for eligible Singaporean children

If the side effect following immunisation is unexpected, persistent or severe or if you are worried about yourself or your childs condition after a vaccination, see your doctor or immunisation nurse as soon as possible or go directly to a hospital. Immunisation side effects may be reported to SAEFVIC, the Victorian vaccine safety service.

It is also important to seek medical advice if you are unwell, as this may be due to other illness rather than because of the vaccination.

Are There Side Effects

Some people have side effects from the vaccine, but these are usually minor and last only a short time. It is quite common to have some swelling and soreness in the arm where the needle was given. Occasionally slight fever may occur. Other side effects – such as headache, a higher fever or fatigue may occur, but these are rare. You should always discuss the benefits and risks of any vaccine with your doctor.

People With Health Problems And The Pneumococcal Vaccine

The PPV vaccine is available on the NHS for children and adults aged from 2 to 64 years old who are at a higher risk of developing a pneumococcal infection than the general population.

This is generally the same people who are eligible for annual flu vaccination.

You’re considered to be at a higher risk of a pneumococcal infection if you have:

Adults and children who are severely immunocompromised usually have a single dose of PCV followed by PPV.

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Who Needs One Or Two Pneumonia Vaccines

There are two pneumococcal vaccines, each working in a different way to maximize protection. PPSV23 protects against 23 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. Those 23 strains are about 90- to 95-plus percent of the strains that cause pneumonia in humans, Poland explains. PCV13, on the other hand, is a conjugate vaccine that protects against 13 strains of pneumococcal bacteria. PCV13 induces immunologic memory, he says. Your body will remember that it has encountered an antigen 20 years from now and develop antibodies to fight it off.

In order to get the best protection against all strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia, the CDC has long recommended that everyone 65 or older receive both vaccines: PCV13 , followed by the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at a later visit. But the agency is now saying that PCV13 may not be necessary for healthy people 65 and older, suggesting that the decision be left up to patients and their physicians as to whether that extra skin prick is appropriate.

“Anyone who reaches the age of 65 and is in any way immunocompromised or has any of the listed indications for pneumococcal vaccine because they’re in a high-risk group for example, if they have diabetes, heart disease or lung disease, or are a smoker should continue to get both vaccines, says Schaffner.

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What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines

Reminder for those eligible to take up their free flu jab

Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.

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Possible Side Effects Of Influenza Vaccination

You may experience minor side effects following vaccination. Most reactions are mild and last no more than a couple of days and you will recover without any problems.

Common side effects of influenza vaccines include:

  • pain, redness, swelling or hardness where the needle went in
  • fever, tiredness, body aches.

Talk to your immunisation provider about possible side effects of the influenza vaccines, or if you or your child have side effects that worry you.

The Consumer Medicine Information available on the Therapeutic Goods Administration website lists the ingredients and side effects of each vaccine.

Learn more about the possible side effects of vaccination

Recommended But Not Funded

Risk stacking

Two classifications of IPD risk are recognised: high-risk conditions for which there is significant risk of IPD and atrisk conditions, which on their own may not significantly increase risk, but when combined together or with lifestyle risk factors increase an individuals risk of IPD. This is described as risk stacking IPD incidence substantially increases with the accumulation of concurrent risk factors or conditions. The risk of pneumococcal infections in those with two or more at-risk conditions may be as high as the risk for those with a recognised high-risk condition.

Recommendations

PCV13 and 23PPV are recommended but not funded for the following individuals:

  • immune-competent adults at increased risk of pneumococcal disease or its complications because of chronic illness
  • adults with cerebrospinal uid leak
  • immunocompromised adults at increased risk of pneumococcal disease
  • individuals of any age who have had one episode of IPD
  • smokers.

For those individuals who choose to purchase PCV13 and 23PPV vaccines, providers may follow the age-appropriate schedules in Table 16.4 and Table 16.5.

Adults aged 65 years and older with no other risk factors

Give one dose of PCV13 followed at least eight weeks later with 23PPV .

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Who Is A Candidate For The Shingles Vaccine

Shingles is a reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. If you had chickenpox as a child, the virus lives in your body forever. 10% of people who had chickenpox in childhood will get shingles as an adult, often when they are over the age of 50. You are most likely to get shingles if you have been sick, felt stressed, or experienced trauma recently. A shingles outbreak is often painful and can cause complications. This is why many people who are eligible get the shingles vaccine to prevent the condition.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, anyone over the age of 50 should get the Shingrix vaccine against shingles. Anyone over the age of 19 who has a weakened immune system should also get it. You should get it even if you can’t remember whether or not you had chickenpox as a child because 99% of Americans born before 1980 had the virus. You can also get the shingles vaccine even if you received the chickenpox vaccine.

You can get shingles more than once. Because of this, experts recommend that you get the shingles vaccine even if you’ve already had shingles. It can help to prevent another outbreak. Make sure to get the vaccination only after your shingles rash has completely disappeared.

Who Should Not Have The Vaccine

New CDC guidelines for shingles and pneumonia vaccines

The pneumococcal vaccine used between 1978 and 1983 protected against only 14 types of the pneumococcus. People who received this vaccine do not usually need to get another shot.

  • If you think you have already been vaccinated for pneumococcal disease, let your doctor know.
  • The polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine is not recommended for children under two years of age.
  • You should not have the vaccine if you have a severe allergy to any component of the vaccine.

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Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
  • Feel dizzy
  • Have vision changes
  • Have ringing in the ears
  • Some people get severe pain in the shoulder and have difficulty moving the arm where the doctor gave the shot. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million shots. These types of reactions would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.
  • Select Safety Information For Pneumovax 23

    Do not administer PNEUMOVAX®23 to individuals with a history of a hypersensitivity reaction to any component of the vaccine.

    Defer vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 in persons with moderate or severe acute illness.

    Use caution and appropriate care in administering PNEUMOVAX 23 to individuals with severely compromised cardiovascular and/or pulmonary function in whom a systemic reaction would pose a significant risk.

    Available human data from clinical trials of PNEUMOVAX 23 in pregnancy have not established the presence or absence of a vaccine-associated risk.

    Since elderly individuals may not tolerate medical interventions as well as younger individuals, a higher frequency and/or a greater severity of reactions in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

    Persons who are immunocompromised, including persons receiving immunosuppressive therapy, may have a diminished immune response to PNEUMOVAX 23.

    PNEUMOVAX 23 may not be effective in preventing pneumococcal meningitis in patients who have chronic cerebrospinal fluid leakage resulting from congenital lesions, skull fractures, or neurosurgical procedures.

    For subjects aged 65 years or older in a clinical study, systemic adverse reactions which were determined by the investigator to be vaccine-related were higher following revaccination than following initial vaccination.

    Vaccination with PNEUMOVAX 23 may not offer 100% protection from pneumococcal infection.

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    Blood Clots And The Vaccine

    There have recently been reports of a very rare condition involving blood clots after vaccination. While this condition remains extremely rare, there appears to be a higher risk in people shortly after the first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Around 4 people develop this condition for every million doses given. Its seen as slightly more in younger people and tends to occur between 4 days and 2 weeks following vaccination.

    The benefits of vaccination continue to outweigh any risks and you should still get your vaccine when invited to do so. All approved vaccines are very effective and will save lives.

    If you have already had your first dose of the AZ vaccine and havent had any serious side effects, you should complete the course and come forward for your second dose, which will still be the AZ vaccine. Its important to have both doses to give you the best protection from COVID-19.

    How Long Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Last

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    For most adults, one dose of the pneumonia vaccine should last a lifetime. In other words, you wont usually need to get another dose. This makes it different to the flu vaccine, which is given every year.

    For some people, boosters of the pneumonia vaccine will be needed. This will be the case for people who have underlying health conditions that make them high-risk for pneumonia and related conditions. Your doctor will let you know if you need another vaccine.

    If youre somebody who needs top-ups of the pneumonia vaccine, youll be able to receive them for free on the NHS.

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    Effectiveness Of The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Children respond very well to the pneumococcal vaccine.

    The introduction of this vaccine into the NHS childhood vaccination schedule has resulted in a large reduction in pneumococcal disease.

    The pneumococcal vaccine given to older children and adults is thought to be around 50 to 70% effective at preventing pneumococcal disease.

    Both types of pneumococcal vaccine are inactivated or “killed” vaccines and do not contain any live organisms. They cannot cause the infections they protect against.

    I Am Pregnant Or Breastfeeding And Have A Lung Condition Should I Have The Coronavirus Vaccine

    The JCVI has advised that pregnant people should be offered the COVID-19 vaccine at the same time as the rest of the population, based their age and clinical risk group.

    After testing, there have been no specific safety concerns with any brand of coronavirus vaccine in relation to pregnancy. In the US, around 90,000 pregnant people have been vaccinated, mainly with the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, with no reported safety concerns. Therefore, the JCVI has advised that it would be preferable for pregnant people to be offered these 2 vaccines where available.

    Its still advised that pregnant people should discuss the benefits and risks of vaccination with their clinician, including the latest evidence on safety and which vaccine they should receive.

    People who are planning pregnancy, are in the immediate postpartum or are breastfeeding can be vaccinated with any vaccine, depending on their age and clinical risk.

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    Persons With Inadequate Immunization Records

    Children and adults lacking adequate documentation of immunization should be considered unimmunized and should be started on an immunization schedule appropriate for their age and risk factors. Pneumococcal vaccines may be given, regardless of possible previous receipt of the vaccines, as adverse events associated with repeated immunization have not been demonstrated. Refer to Immunization of Persons with Inadequate Immunization Records in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with inadequate immunization records.

    How Effective Is The Coronavirus Vaccine Is Protection Instant

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    All approved coronavirus vaccines are very effective. But protection from any vaccine takes time to build up and, in general, the older you are the longer it takes. Its thought that it will take at least 2 weeks in younger people and at least 3 weeks in older people before you can expect a good antibody response.

    A recent study has shown that fully vaccinated people are three times less likely to be infected with coronavirus. The first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine will give you some protection from the virus. But you need to have 2 doses of the vaccine to give you the best protection. Therefore, its really important you continue to protect yourself and others from catching or spreading the virus.

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    When To Get The Vaccine

    Thereâs no such thing as pneumonia season, like flu season. If you and your doctor decide that you need to have a pneumonia vaccine, you can get it done at any time of the year. If itâs flu season, you can even get a pneumonia vaccine at the same time that you get a flu vaccine, as long as you receive each shot in a different arm.

    Is The Vaccine Safe For People With Lung Conditions

    The vaccine is safe for people with lung conditions. The vaccine has been tested on people with long-term conditions and on people from a range of age groups, including older people. The JCVI has decided it is safe for people with long-term conditions and that people who are high-risk should be prioritised to get the vaccine first. There is no reason to think the vaccination interacts with any medications. Treatment you are on for your lung condition should continue as normal.

    If you are on a blood thinner caller warfarin you should be going for regular blood tests to monitor the thickness of your blood. On the day of your vaccine appointment, make sure you know your latest reading and when you were last checked. If you dont know your reading, you can get it from your GP surgery. If your reading is unknown, it could mean your vaccination might not be able to go ahead. Vaccination centres dont have access to your medical records and so cant look up your reading on the day.

    All approved vaccines have met strict standards of safety, quality and effectiveness. All approved coronavirus vaccines must go through all the clinical trials and checks all other licensed medicines go through. Other vaccines are being developed and will only be available to the public once theyve been thoroughly tested.

    You should only look at reliable sources of information about coronavirus vaccine that are updated regularly, such as this webpage and the NHS.

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    How Do We Know The Vaccine Is Safe

    All medicines are tested for safety and effectiveness by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency . The vaccine meets the high safety standards required for it to be used in the UK and other European countries. The vaccine has been given to millions of people worldwide.

    Once they’re in use, the safety of vaccines continues to be monitored by the MHRA.

    Why Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Important For You

    Chickenpox, pneumococcal jabs to be free for eligible Singaporean ...

    The purpose of giving either type of pneumonia vaccine is to prevent the onset of pneumococcal disease, which can result in life-threatening conditions if left unchecked. The vaccine works by stimulating the normal immune system to produce antibodies directed against the pneumococcus bacteria. The pneumococcus bacteria can also lead to complications like , meningitis, organ damage, lung abscess, and more. The vaccine helps the body to fight the disease so that there is no lasting damage and the symptoms become milder.

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    What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccine

    Most people don’t usually have serious side effects from either vaccine, but it’s possible to have some mild symptoms.

    The most common side effects with PCV13 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Swelling where the shot was given.
    • Pain or tenderness where the shot was given.
    • Fever.

    The most common side effects with PPSV23 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Pain where the shot was given.
    • Fever.
    • Muscle aches.

    If you do happen to have side effects, CDC says they’ll usually go away within two days.

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