Monday, October 3, 2022

Who Should Get A Pneumonia Vaccine Cdc

What Is Pneumococcal Disease

Ask the Expert: Who should get a Pneumococcal Vaccine?

Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae or pneumococcus. People can be infected with the bacteria, or they can carry it in their throat, and not be ill. Those carriers can still spread it, primarily in droplets from their nose or mouth when they breathe, cough, or sneeze.

Depending on what organ or part of the body is infected, pneumococcal disease will cause any of several serious illnesses, including:

  • Bacterial meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord that can lead to confusion, coma, and death as well as other physical effects, such as blindness or paralysis
  • Pneumonia, an infection of the lungs that creates cough, fever, and difficulty breathing
  • Otitis media, a middle ear infection that can cause pain, swelling, sleeplessness, fever, and irritability
  • Bacteremia, a dangerous infection of the blood stream
  • Sinus infections

There are more than 6,000 deaths each year in the U.S. as a result of pneumococcal disease. More than half of those deaths are in adults who, according to CDC recommendations, should have been vaccinated.

In children under age 5, infection with the pneumococcus bacteria results in approximately 480 cases of meningitis and 4,000 cases of bacteremia or other invasive infection per year. A major problem in very young children is that the classic symptoms of meningitis and pneumonia are often not present, making the disease hard to recognize.

Doctors Support The Change

Richard Watkins, MD, an infectious disease physician and a professor of internal medicine at the Northeast Ohio Medical University, tells Verywell that there was never any compelling evidence for the previous recommendation, adding, I am glad it has been changed.

Watkins says that the move may help more children get vaccinated, noting the convenience factor. Under the updated guidance, families only have to make one trip to get vaccinated instead of several under the previous recommendations, he says.

John Schreiber, MD, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, tells Verywell that the changed guidance seems like a reasonable thing to do.

Schreiber anticipates that some parents may still be wary to give their children other vaccines at the same time as the COVID-19 vaccine, but say that new recommendations are sound.

I dont have any concerns with this, Schreiber says. But, he adds, the CDC and AAP will monitor children to see what happens next. If it turns out that children are complaining about more side effects after getting vaccinated, Im sure the recommendations can be modified.”

The information in this article is current as of the date listed, which means newer information may be available when you read this. For the most recent updates on COVID-19, visit our coronavirus news page.

Causes And Types Of Pneumonia

Viruses, bacteria, and fungi can all cause pneumonia. In the United States, common causes of viral pneumonia are influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus , and SARS-CoV-2 . A common cause of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae . These bacteria can cause a wide range of infectionslike pneumoniaknown as pneumococcal disease.

There are several ways people can get sick with pneumonia:

  • Community-acquired pneumonia ,
  • Healthcare-associated pneumonia, and

Learn more about the causes of pneumonia.

Also Check: Can You Get Pneumonia From The Flu

Who Should Avoid Pneumococcal Vaccinations

Because of age or certain health conditions, some people should avoid or delay getting a pneumonia shot. This varies based on your situation and the type of vaccine.

When to Avoid or Delay Pneumococcal Vaccination

Prevnar 13
  • If you are allergic to any part of the vaccine.
  • If you have ever had an allergic reaction to PCV13.
  • If you have ever had an allergic reaction to DTaP vaccine or any other vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid.
  • If you have already had an earlier pneumococcal vaccine called Prevnar .
Pneumovax 23
  • If you are allergic to any part of the vaccine.
  • If you have had a life-threatening reaction to this vaccine in the past.

If you have a serious illness, you should talk with your doctor about whether its safe to get a pneumonia shot or whether you should wait.

Donât Leave Your Health to Chance

Also Check: How Can You Tell If Your Pneumonia Is Getting Worse

What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccine

Who Should Get The Pneumonia Vaccines?

Most people don’t usually have serious side effects from either vaccine, but it’s possible to have some mild symptoms.

The most common side effects with PCV13 include:

  • Redness where the shot was given.
  • Swelling where the shot was given.
  • Pain or tenderness where the shot was given.
  • Fever.

The most common side effects with PPSV23 include:

  • Redness where the shot was given.
  • Pain where the shot was given.
  • Fever.
  • Muscle aches.

If you do happen to have side effects, CDC says they’ll usually go away within two days.

Read Also: Pneumonia Shot Cost Without Insurance

Protect Your Health With These Healthy Living Practices

Avoid people who are sick. If you are sick, stay away from others as much as possible to keep from getting them sick.

You can also help prevent respiratory infections by:

  • Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces that are touched a lot
  • Coughing or sneezing into a tissue or into your elbow or sleeve
  • Limiting contact with cigarette smoke or quitting smoking
  • Taking good care of medical conditions

Are Both Pneumococcal Vaccines Safe

Both vaccines are safe. As with any medicine there is always the possibility of a serious problem, such as an allergic reaction. But with PCV and PPSV , the risk of serious harm or death is extremely small.

In studies involving nearly 60,000 doses of the PCV vaccine, there have been no moderate or severe reactions. The mild side effects included:

  • Redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot is given in about one out of every four infants
  • Fever higher than 100.4 F in about one out of every three infants
  • Fever higher than 102.2 F in about one out of every 50 children
  • Occasional incidence of fussiness, drowsiness, or loss of appetite

About one out of every two adults who receive the PPSV vaccine experiences redness or pain where the shot is given. Less than 1% have a more severe reaction, such as a fever or muscle aches.

Read Also: Side Effects Of Pneumonia 23 Shot

Which Vaccines Do Medicare Advantage Plans Cover

Medicare Advantage plans, sometimes referred to as Part C plans, are offered by private insurers for a set monthly premium. These plans bundle Part A and Part B insurance and usually Part D coverage.

Medicare Advantage plans must cover certain vaccines with no copay when given by a healthcare provider who accepts your insurance. The vaccines usually covered are:

  • Hepatitis A and B

  • Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis

  • Varicella

Check with your insurance provider for specific plan details. Avoiding these preventative vaccines can have serious health consequences. Since you can easily get vaccines at your providers office or the pharmacy, making them a priority is worthwhile.

During the lockdown, routine vaccines have dipped substantially. Its important to catch up on immunizations that were missed, Dr. William Schaffner, a professor of infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, tells GoodRx.

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What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine Exactly

Pneumonia Vaccine || What Are Different Doses & Who Should Be Given Pneumonia Vaccine?

The pneumonia vaccine helps prevent pneumococcal disease, which is any kind of illness caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. That includes pneumonia and meningitis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . There are actually two types of pneumococcal vaccines in the US:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, known as PCV13
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, known as PPSV23

PCV13 protects against 13 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease, the CDC says, and specifically works against the most serious types of pneumococcal disease, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. PPSV23 protects against 23 types of bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease and helps prevent infections like meningitis and bacteremia.

The pneumococcal vaccines can be lifesaving. Pneumococcal pneumonia kills about one in 20 older adults who get it, according to the CDC. The vaccines offer a lot of protection. PCV13 can protect three in four adults ages 65 and up against invasive pneumococcal disease and nine in 20 adults ages 65 and older against pneumococcal pneumonia, per CDC data. One shot of PPSV23 protects up to 17 in 20 healthy adults against invasive pneumococcal disease.

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Does Medicare Cover The Pneumonia Shot

Medicare covers the full cost for receiving two different types of pneumonia vaccines also called pneumococcal vaccines. But the shots have to be given at least a year apart.

Types of Pneumonia Vaccines Approved in the U.S.

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV20
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine PPSV23

You will pay nothing for the shots so long as you are enrolled in Medicare Part B and the doctor, pharmacist or other qualified health care provider giving the shots accepts the Medicare-approved cost.

Medicare Advantage plans will also cover the cost of both pneumococcal vaccinations. These are private plans that are required to cover everything Medicare Part A and Part B cover.

Your Medicare Advantage plan may also provide more benefits than Original Medicare. Check with your plan administrator to see if you have additional vaccination coverage.

Are You 65 Or Older Get Two Vaccinations Against Pneumonia

  • By Gregory Curfman, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Former Editor-in-Chief, Harvard Health Publishing

ARCHIVED CONTENT: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date each article was posted or last reviewed. No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

If you or a loved one is age 65 or older, getting vaccinated against pneumonia is a good idea so good that the Centers for Disease Control now recommends that everyone in this age group get vaccinated against pneumonia twice.

This new recommendation is based on findings from a large clinical trial called CAPiTA, which were published today in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes just called pneumococcus, is a common bacterium that can cause serious lung infections like pneumonia. It can also cause invasive infections of the bloodstream, the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord , and other organs and tissues. Older individuals are especially prone to being infected by Pneumococcus, and these infections are often deadly.

The dark spots are pneumonia-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria isolated from the blood of an infected person.

One caveat is that while PCV13 is effective in preventing pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, it does not prevent pneumonia caused by viruses or other bacteria.

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Who Should Get The Vaccine

People over age 65. As you age, your immune system doesnât work as well as it once did. Youâre more likely to have trouble fighting off a pneumonia infection. All adults over age 65 should get the vaccine.

Those with weakened immune systems. Many diseases can cause your immune system to weaken, so itâs less able to fight off bugs like pneumonia.

If you have heart disease, diabetes, emphysema, asthma, or COPD , youâre more likely to have a weakened immune system, which makes you more likely to get pneumonia.

The same goes for people who receive chemotherapy, people who have had organ transplants, and people with HIV or AIDS.

People who smoke. If youâve smoked for a long time, you could have damage to the small hairs that line the insides of your lungs and help filter out germs. When theyâre damaged, they arenât as good at stopping those bad germs.

Heavy drinkers. If you drink too much alcohol, you may have a weakened immune system. Your white blood cells donât work as well as they do for people with a healthy immune system.

People getting over surgery or a severe illness. If you were in the hospital ICU and needed help breathing with a ventilator, youâre at risk of getting pneumonia. The same is true if youâve just had major surgery or if youâre healing from a serious injury. When your immune system is weak because of illness or injury or because itâs helping you get better from surgery, you canât fight off germs as well as you normally can.

How Cdc Monitors Vaccine Safety

If You Have These Vaccine Side Effects, Don

CDC and FDA monitor the safety of vaccines after they are approved or authorized. If a problem is found with a vaccine, CDC and FDA will inform health officials, health care providers, and the public.

CDC uses 3 systems to monitor vaccine safety:

  • The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System : an early warning system, co-managed by CDC and FDA, to monitor for potential vaccine safety problems. Anyone can report possible vaccine side effects to VAERS.
  • The Vaccine Safety Datalink : a collaboration between CDC and 9 health care organizations that conducts vaccine safety monitoring and research.
  • The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project: a partnership between CDC and several medical research centers that provides expert consultation and conducts clinical research on vaccine-associated health risks.

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Why Do Healthy People Need To Get Vaccinated

Healthy people should get vaccinated against the flu vaccine every year because anyone can get seriously ill from the flu virus. Some groups have a higher risk than others. But the flu vaccine helps prevent serious illness and death from the flu in all people who get vaccinated and in people who are unable to get vaccinated. The more people who get the flu vaccine, the more everyone in our community is protected.

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Do I Need The Shingles Vaccine And How Much Does It Cost

The CDC recommends adults 50 years and older should get two doses of the shingles vaccine. Shingles is a viral infection that can cause several symptoms, including:

  • Nerve pain

  • Pneumonia

  • Other serious symptoms

Two doses of Shingrix will protect you against shingles and postherpetic neuralgia , the most common shingles complication. PHN affects your nerve fibers and skin, leading to burning pain that persists after other symptoms of shingles, such as the rash and blisters, have gone away.

Studies suggest Shingrix was between 91% and 97% effective in preventing shingles after two shots, depending on your age. Since your risk of acquiring shingles and PHN increases as you get older, strong protection against shingles after 50 is important.

Most Medicare Part D cover the shingles shots, as well as Medicare Advantage plans with built-in Part D coverage. Depending on your plan, you may have to pay toward your deductible, a copay, or pay out-of-pocket and get reimbursed later.

If you havent met your plans deductible for the year, youll have to pay full price for the vaccines. If you have to pay upfront, the average retail cost of is about $200 per dose. You need two doses of Shingrix, 2 to 6 months apart.

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What Is The Pneumonia Vaccine

The pneumonia vaccine is an injection that prevents you from contracting pneumococcal disease. There are two pneumococcal vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States:

  • PCV13 Prevnar 13®: This vaccine helps protect against the 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria that most commonly cause serious infections in children and adults. Doctors give this vaccine to children at 12 through 15 months, 2, 4, and 6 years old. Adults who need this vaccine get just one shot.
  • PPSV23 Pneumovax23®: This vaccine helps protect against serious infections caused by 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria. Doctors give a single shot of this vaccine to people who need it, but the CDC recommends one or two additional shots for people with certain chronic medical conditions.
  • The Center for Disease Control recommends the PCV13 vaccine for:

    • All children younger than 2 years old
    • People 2 years or older with certain medical conditions

    The CDC recommends PPSV23 for:

    • All adults 65 years or older
    • People 2 through 64 years old with certain medical conditions
    • Smokers 19 through 64 years old

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    Pneumonia Treatments And Covid

    How long should you wait to get the COVID-19 vaccine after getting a pneumonia shot?

    According to the World Health Organization , bacterial pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics, which are usually prescribed at a health center.

    If your symptoms are severe, it is important that you call your healthcare provideror seek immediate helpto get the proper treatment. Severe symptoms include:

    • Difficulty breathing
    • Bluish color in your lips or fingertips
    • A high fever
    • Cough with mucus that is severe or worsening

    Although COVID-19 is caused by a virus, people with the illness can still develop a superinfection, which is a reinfection or secondary infection caused by bacteria. If this happens, antibiotics will be given to the patient. In order to prevent antibiotic resistance, when antibiotics become useless against bacteria, some researchers have suggested following antimicrobial stewardship principles .

    Moreover, because severe cases of pneumonia may require treatment at a hospital, healthcare providers must consider the chance that a patient may acquire coinfections in hospitals. So, to be safe and not add to superinfection among hospitalized patients, antibiotics are warranted.

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    How Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Work

    There are currently two vaccines administered in the United States:

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine . This vaccine joins a protein which helps build immunity. Infants and very young children do not respond to polysaccharide antigens, but linkage to this protein enables the developing immune system to recognize and process polysaccharide antigens, leading to production of antibody. It helps protect against disease from13 types of Streptococcal pneumoniae capsular serotypes that are the most common cause of serious infection. Typically, children receive three doses and adults at high risk of severe pneumococcal infection receive one dose.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . This vaccine looks like certain bacteria. This stimulates the body to build protection against the 23 serotypes of Streptococcal pneumonia contained in the vaccine. These 23 serotypes now represent at least 50% to 60% of pneumococcal disease isolates in adults. Most people receive a single dose, with one to two boosters recommended for some.
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