Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Who Should Have Pneumonia Vaccine

Problems That Could Happen After Getting Any Injected Vaccine

There’s a new pneumonia vaccine for adults
  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including vaccination. Sitting or lying down for about 15 minutes can help prevent fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Tell your doctor if you or your child:
  • Feel dizzy
  • Have vision changes
  • Have ringing in the ears
  • Some people get severe pain in the shoulder and have difficulty moving the arm where the doctor gave the shot. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million shots. These types of reactions would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination.
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a serious injury or death.
  • How Long Does A Pneumonia Shot Last

    Streptococcus pneumoniaevaccinepneumoniaStreptococcus pneumoniae

    • Younger than 2 years old: four shots
    • 65 years old or older: two shots, which will last you the rest of your life
    • Between 2 and 64 years old: between one and three shots if you have certain immune system disorders or if youre a smoker

    Persons With Chronic Diseases

    Refer to Immunization of Persons with Chronic Diseases in Part 3 for additional information about vaccination of people with chronic diseases.

    Asplenia or hyposplenia

    Hyposplenic or asplenic individuals should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine, followed by a booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

    Chronic kidney disease and patients on dialysis

    Individuals with chronic kidney disease should receive age appropriate pneumococcal vaccines. Children less than 18 years of age with chronic kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome, should receive Pneu-C-13 vaccine and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with chronic kidney failure should receive Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Adults with nephrotic syndrome should receive Pneu-C-13 and Pneu-P-23 vaccine. Due to the decreased immunogenicity and efficacy of Pneu-P-23 vaccine in children and adults with chronic kidney failure, 1 booster dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine is recommended. Refer to Table 3, Table 4 and Booster doses and re-immunization for additional information.

    Neurologic disorders

    Chronic lung disease, including asthma

    Chronic heart disease

    Chronic liver disease

    Endocrine and metabolic diseases

    Non-malignant hematologic disorders

    Cochlear implants

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    The Flu Pneumonia And Inflammation Create A Deadly Threat

    Pneumococcal pneumonia can follow other viral infections, particularly influenza, says William Schaffner, M.D., an infectious disease specialist at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. The biology behind it:The flu virus attaches to, and infects, the cells lining the mucous membranes in the back of the throat, nose and bronchial tubes. Normally, the cells eject infectious agents out of the body via the nose or mouth, or they’re simply swallowed. But when impaired by the flu, the cells lining these membranes allow the bacteria to slip down into the bronchial tubes and trigger a secondary infection, in the lungs. The infection inflames the air sacs in the lungs, causing them to fill with pus and fluid. That not only makes it hard to breathe but can allow bacteria to escape into the bloodstream, causing an infection called sepsis, an aggressive inflammatory response that can, ultimately, lead to organ failure.

    Pneumococcal pneumonia, of course, is also likely be a complication of respiratory syncytial virus , a common and highly contagious winter lung infection, whichuncharacteristicallyspread this summer, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. However, the pneumococcal vaccine wont shield you from pneumonia that results from either of them. As Schaffner puts it, Pneumonia from Covid is a different sort of pneumonia.

    What Are The Side Effects Of The Pneumonia Vaccine

    This particular Anti

    Most people don’t usually have serious side effects from either vaccine, but it’s possible to have some mild symptoms.

    The most common side effects with PCV13 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Swelling where the shot was given.
    • Pain or tenderness where the shot was given.
    • Fever.

    The most common side effects with PPSV23 include:

    • Redness where the shot was given.
    • Pain where the shot was given.
    • Fever.
    • Muscle aches.

    If you do happen to have side effects, CDC says they’ll usually go away within two days.

    Recommended Reading: How Does One Know If They Have Pneumonia

    How Does It Compare To Other Pneumococcal Vaccines

    Like Prevnar 20, Prevnar 13 is a conjugate vaccine that works in a similar way to protect you against pneumococcal disease. Pneumovax 23, on the other hand, is a polyvalent vaccine that works by producing antibodies against pneumococcal bacteria.

    No vaccine is 100% effective at preventing disease, but all three pneumococcal vaccines Prevnar 13, Prevnar 20, and Pneumovax 23 are considered safe and effective for helping protect against pneumococcal disease. And this latest FDA approval demonstrates ongoing pneumococcal vaccine development, with more candidates currently in the pipeline.

    Lets review some key differences between the vaccines.

    Concurrent Administration Of Vaccines

    Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concomitantly with other vaccines, with the exception of a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine . There should be at least an 8 week interval between a dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and a subsequent dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine, and at least a 1 year interval between a dose of Pneu-P-23 vaccine and a subsequent dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine refer to Immunocompromised persons for information regarding administration of pneumococcal vaccines to HSCT recipients. Different injection sites and separate needles and syringes must be used for concurrent parenteral injections. Refer to Timing of Vaccine Administration in Part 1 for additional information about concurrent administration of vaccines.

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    What Are The Side Effects

    Prior to its approval, Prevnar 20 was studied in six clinical trials. Across these studies, reported side effects were similar for all ages. Most of them were mild to moderate in severity. Like many other vaccines, pain at the injection site is reported as the most common side effect.

    Additional common side effects of Prevnar 20 can include:

    • Muscle pain

    • Joint pain

    • Injection site swelling

    Although most of these side effects happened within 7 to 10 days of the shot, less than 2% of people experienced one or more serious adverse events within 6 months. However, it hasnt been confirmed that these events were due to the vaccine.

    The safety of Prevnar 20 was studied in people who have no history of pneumococcal vaccination, in individuals who have previously received Prevnar 13, and in individuals who have previously received Pneumovax 23. No notable safety differences were seen between the vaccines.

    Next, well discuss who should receive Prevnar 20.

    Complications Of Pneumonia Caused By Covid

    Pneumonia Vaccination

    Because pneumonia causes the alveoli in the lungs to fill with pus and fluid, breathing can be painful and difficult.

    Pneumonia can cause serious health complications, including:

    Because COVID-19 attacks the lungs, it would make sense that having COVID-19 would cause lung complications. As of yet, not enough data are available to support this conclusion.

    However, as noted above, research does show that COVID-19 can cause severe illness, including pneumonia that can be fatal. A 2020 study by the CDC found that among a group of people with COVID-19, about 70% had complications from pneumonia. Also, people with COVID-19 were twice as likely to get pneumonia compared to people with the flu.

    Regarding long-lasting complications from COVID-19, it is still too soon to say for sure whether “long-haulers” are more likely to have underlying chronic medical conditions.

    Recommended Reading: Symptoms Of Pneumonia In Adults Over 65

    Who Shouldnt Get Prevnar 20

    People who have had a severe allergic reaction in the past to any of the vaccines ingredients including diphtheria protein should not receive Prevnar 20. People who are 17 years or younger also shouldnt receive this vaccine.

    At this time, the FDA didnt place any other restrictions on who can receive Prevnar 20. If youre unsure if you should receive this vaccine, your healthcare provider can give you more information.

    Pregnancy And Pneumococcal Immunisation

    Immunisation against pneumococcal disease is not usually recommended for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Women who are at increased risk of pneumococcal infection should be vaccinated before pregnancy or as soon as possible after giving birth. Speak with your doctor about whether you are at risk of infection and should be immunised.

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    Babies And The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Babies are routinely vaccinated with a type of pneumococcal vaccine known as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as part of their childhood vaccination programme.

    Babies born on or after 1 January 2020 have 2 injections, which are usually given at:

    • 12 weeks old
    • 1 year old

    Babies born before this date will continue to be offered 3 doses, at 8 and 16 weeks and a booster at 1 year.

    What Does The Pneumonia Vaccine Do

    PneumoRecs VaxAdvisor

    Pneumonia is a serious condition that attacks the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing. It often requires hospitalisation, and can be life-threatening especially for the elderly or for people with weakened immune systems.

    Pneumonia can be caused by viruses and fungi, but its usually caused by a bacterial infection. This is why both types of the pneumonia vaccine work by generating antibodies to kill pneumococcal bacteria. Once youve had the vaccine, your body will be able to use these antibodies to quickly fight off the bacteria strains that cause pneumonia.

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    What Are The Possible Side Effects Of Pcv And Ppsv Vaccines

    Kids may have redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given. A child also might have a fever after getting the shot. There is a very small chance of an allergic reaction with any vaccine.

    The pneumococcal vaccines contain only a small piece of the germ and so cannot cause pneumococcal disease.

    Path To Improved Health

    Pneumococcal vaccines can protect you against getting pneumonia, which is contagious and spreads from close, person-to-person contact. Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs and can lead to many symptoms, including:

    • cough
    • chest pains
    • bringing up mucus when you cough

    For seniors, pneumonia can be very serious and life-threatening. This is especially true if you have a chronic condition, such as diabetes or COPD. Pneumonia can also develop after youve had a case of the flu or a respiratory virus such as COVID-19. It is extremely important to stay current on flu shots each year in addition to your pneumococcal vaccines.

    While PPSV23 and PCV13 do not protect against all types of pneumonia, they can make it less likely that you will experience severe and possibly life-threatening complications from the illness.

    The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that seniors who have not had either pneumococcal vaccine should get a dose of PCV13 first, and then a dose of PPSV23 6-12 months later. The vaccines cannot be given at the same time. If you have recently had a dose of PPSV23, your doctor will wait at least one year to give you PCV13.

    Also Check: How Often Do Seniors Need Pneumonia Vaccine

    Side Effects Of The Vaccines Against Pneumococcal Disease

    Vaccines against pneumococcal disease are effective and safe, although all medications can have unwanted side effects.

    Side effects from the vaccine are uncommon and usually mild, but may include:

    • localised pain, redness and swelling at the injection site
    • occasionally, an injection-site lump that may last many weeks
    • low-grade temperature .

    What To Know About The Pneumococcal Vaccine

    How long should you wait to get the COVID-19 vaccine after getting a pneumonia shot?

    Who needs it: The CDC recommends one pneumococcal vaccine for adults 19 to 64 with certain risk factors . If you work around chronically ill people say, in a hospital or nursing home you should get the vaccine, even if you’re healthy. People 65 and older can discuss with their health care provider whether they should get PCV13 if they haven’t previously received a dose. A dose of PPSV23 is recommended for those 65 and older, regardless of previous inoculations with pneumococcal vaccines.

    How often: Space immunizations out. You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine , then, a year later, a dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine . People with any of the risk factors should get one dose of PCV13 and PPSV23 before age 65, separated by eight weeks.

    Why you need it: Pneumococcal disease, which can cause pneumonia, kills around 3,000 people a year. Young children and those over 65 have the highest incidence of serious illness, and older adults are more likely to die from it.

    Editors note: This article was published on Oct. 26, 2020. It was updated in September 2021 with new information.

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    Who Shouldn’t Get The Pneumonia Vaccine

    If you don’t meet the recommendations for the pneumonia vaccine, you really don’t need to get it, pulmonary critical care expert Reynold Panettieri, MD, director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Science at Rutgers University, tells Health. “It’s a risk-benefit ratio,” he explains. “If you’re under 65 and are otherwise healthy, your likelihood of developing pneumococcal pneumonia is unlikely,” he says.

    But there are some people who explicitly shouldn’t get the vaccines, per the CDC. Those include:

    • People who have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to PCV13, PPSV23, an early pneumococcal conjugate vaccine called PCV7, the DTaP vaccine, or any parts of these vaccines. Talk to your doctor if you’re unsure.
    • People who are currently ill.

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    Managing Fever After Immunisation

    Common side effects following immunisation are usually mild and temporary . Specific treatment is not usually required.

    There are a number of treatment options that can reduce the side effects of the vaccine including:

    • giving extra fluids to drink and not overdressing if there is a fever
    • although routine use of paracetamol after vaccination is not recommended, if fever is present, paracetamol can be given check the label for the correct dose or speak with your pharmacist, .

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    Pneumonia Treatments And Covid

    According to the World Health Organization , bacterial pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics, which are usually prescribed at a health center.

    If your symptoms are severe, it is important that you call your healthcare provideror seek immediate helpto get the proper treatment. Severe symptoms include:

    • Difficulty breathing
    • Bluish color in your lips or fingertips
    • A high fever
    • Cough with mucus that is severe or worsening

    Although COVID-19 is caused by a virus, people with the illness can still develop a superinfection, which is a reinfection or secondary infection caused by bacteria. If this happens, antibiotics will be given to the patient. In order to prevent antibiotic resistance, when antibiotics become useless against bacteria, some researchers have suggested following antimicrobial stewardship principles .

    Moreover, because severe cases of pneumonia may require treatment at a hospital, healthcare providers must consider the chance that a patient may acquire coinfections in hospitals. So, to be safe and not add to superinfection among hospitalized patients, antibiotics are warranted.

    What Is A Pneumococcal Vaccine

    Pneumococcal Vaccine Recommendations

    A pneumococcal vaccine is an injection that can prevent pneumococcal disease. A pneumococcal disease is any illness that is caused by pneumococcal bacteria, including pneumonia. In fact, the most common cause of pneumonia is pneumococcal bacteria. This type of bacteria can also cause ear infections, sinus infections, and meningitis.

    Adults age 65 or older are amongst the highest risk groups for getting pneumococcal disease.

    To prevent pneumococcal disease, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine .

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    Who Should Not Get The Vaccine

    People should not get the vaccine if they have had a life threatening allergic reaction to a previous dose.

    Additionally, a person should not undergo vaccination if they have had an allergic reaction to medication containing diphtheria toxoid or an earlier form of the pneumonia vaccination .

    Lastly, people who are sick or have allergic reactions to any of the ingredients of the vaccine should talk to a doctor before getting the shot.

    A pneumonia shot will not reduce pneumonia. However, it helps prevent invasive pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis, endocarditis, empyema, and bacteremia, which is when bacteria enter the bloodstream.

    Noninvasive pneumococcal disease includes sinusitis.

    There are two types of pneumonia shots available. Which type a person gets depends on their age, whether or not they smoke, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions.

    The two types are:

    • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for young children, people with certain underlying conditions, and some people over the age of 65 years.
    • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : Healthcare providers recommend this vaccine for anyone over 65 years of age, people with certain underlying conditions, and people who smoke.

    According to the

    • roughly 8 in 10 babies from invasive pneumococcal disease
    • 45 in 100 adults 65 years or older against pneumococcal pneumonia
    • 75 in 100 adults 65 years or older against invasive pneumococcal disease

    Types Of Pneumonia Vaccine

    There are two vaccines which can provide protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae. They cannot prevent other types of bacterial pneumonia or any associated with a fungus or virus.

    The two FDA-approved vaccines immunize a person against the specific serotypes that are most likely to cause illness and invasive disease. They are:

    • PCV13, marketed under the name Prevnar 13,which prevents 13 of the most severe types of S. pneumoniae
    • PPSV23, marketed under the name Pneumovax 23, which protects against an additional 23 S. pneumoniae serotypes

    Neither vaccine is made from a live or whole bacteria but rather parts of the bacterial shell. While these components cannot cause disease, the immune system recognizes them as threats and triggers a defensive response in the same way it would to a real bacteria.

    The PVC13 vaccine is delivered intramuscularly either into the deltoid muscle of the upper arm or the vastus lateralis muscle of the external thigh. The PPSV23 shot can either be given intramuscularly or subcutaneously .

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