Friday, September 30, 2022

Why Do People Get Pneumonia

How Long Does It Last

How do I get pneumonia?

It takes a certain amount of time to start to feel sick after getting exposed to a germ. This length of time is called the incubation period, and it depends on many things, especially which bug is causing the illness.

With influenza pneumonia, for example, someone may become sick as soon as 12 hours or as long as 3 days after exposure to the flu virus. But with walking pneumonia, a person may not feel it until 2 to 3 weeks after becoming infected.

Most types of pneumonia clear up within a week or two, although a cough can linger for several weeks more. In severe cases, it may take longer to completely recover.

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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Pneumonia In Children

The signs and symptoms of pneumonia in children vary from child to child and also depend on your childs age, cause of the infection, and severity of their illness.

Usual symptoms include:

  • Cry more than usual. Are restless or more fussy.

Adolescents have the same symptoms as adults, including:

  • Cough.
  • Difficulty breathing/shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.

Newborns are at greater risk of pneumonia caused by bacteria present in the birth canal. In young children, viruses are the main cause of pneumonia.

Pneumonia caused by bacteria tends to happen suddenly, starting with fever and fast breathing. Symptoms appear more slowly and tend to be less severe when pneumonia is caused by viruses.

How Is Dog Pneumonia Treated

The following treatments are used for pneumonia in dogs:

  • Antibiotics like doxycycline and amoxicillin or other antimicrobial medicines, based on lab test results
  • Bronchodilators or medicines that open up lung airways
  • Nebulization, which involves inhaling a fine mist of water vapor to clear air passages
  • Oxygen, if the skin is very bluish, which indicates lack of oxygen
  • Medication to improve immunity or to treat any underlying problem
  • Anti-vomiting medication, usually given to dogs with aspiration pneumonia

If your dog has severe pneumonia, they may need to be hospitalized. Your dog may have to be closely examined to avoid any complications.

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What To Expect At Home

You will still have symptoms of pneumonia after you leave the hospital.

  • Your cough will slowly get better over 7 to 14 days.
  • Sleeping and eating may take up to a week to return to normal.
  • Your energy level may take 2 weeks or more to return to normal.

You will need to take time off work. For a while, you might not be able to do other things that you are used to doing.

What Is Bacterial Pneumonia

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Bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia in adults.

Bacterial pneumonia may follow a viral infection, like a cold or the flu . This type of pneumonia usually affects one area of the lung and is referred to as lobar pneumonia.

Types of bacteria that cause pneumonia include:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus, is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults, called pneumococcal pneumonia.

It may be prevented by a vaccine. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends two pneumonia vaccines for adults 65 years and older: pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, or Prevnar 13 , and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, or Pneumovax 23 .

According to the CDC:

  • You should receive a dose of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine first, followed at least one year later by a dose of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine .
  • If you’ve already received any doses of PPSV23, the dose of PCV13 should be given at least one year after the most recent PPSV23 dose.
  • If you’ve already received a dose of the PCV13 at a younger age, another dose is not recommended.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae usually infects younger adults who work in crowded areas, such as schools, homeless shelters, or prisons.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes a mild pneumonia infection that usually affects people older than 60.

Other bacterial pneumonia symptoms include:

  • High fever

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Who Is Most At Risk For Getting Pneumonia

People who have an increased risk of pneumonia include:

  • People over the age of 65 and infants under age 2. The weakening immune system of older people makes them less able to fight off illnesses. Similarly, the immune system of infants is still developing and not at full-strength, making them more susceptible to infection.
  • People with a health-caused weakened immune system. Examples include:
  • People who are receiving chemotherapy
  • Transplanted organ recipients
  • People who have HIV/AIDS
  • People with autoimmune disease and who are taking medications that suppress the immune system.
  • People who have health conditions that affect the lungs or heart. Examples include:
  • Stroke
  • People who are in the hospital. In particular, people in the ICU or anyone recovering who spends a large amounts of time lying on their backs. This position allows fluids, mucus or germs to settle in the lungs. People who need ventilators to breathe are at even greater risk since they have a difficult time coughing up germs that could cause a lung infection.
  • People who smoke or drink alcohol. Smoking damages lung tissue and long-term alcohol abuse weakens the immune system.
  • People who are exposed to toxic fumes, chemicals or secondhand smoke. These contaminants weaken lung function and make it easier to develop a lung infection.
  • Pneumonia Symptoms And Causes

    Thinkstock

    There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, airborne irritants, and fungi. When these germs enter the lungs, they can overpower the immune system and invade nearby lung tissues, which are very delicate.

    Once infected, the air sacs in the lungs become inflamed and fill up with fluid and pus, which causes coughing, fever, chills, and breathing problems.

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    How Do The Lungs Work

    Your lungs main job is to get oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide. This happens during breathing. You breathe 12 to 20 times per minute when you are not sick. When you breathe in, air travels down the back of your throat and passes through your voice box and into your windpipe . Your trachea splits into two air passages . One bronchial tube leads to the left lung, the other to the right lung. For the lungs to perform their best, the airways need to be open as you breathe in and out. Swelling and mucus can make it harder to move air through the airways, making it harder to breathe. This leads to shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and feeling more tired than normal.

    More Severe Cases May Also Cause:

    Why Elderly People Should Receive Pneumococcal Vaccination
    • quick breathing
    • rapid heartbeat
    • nausea and vomiting

    Some people get a sharp pain in their chest when they breathe in and out. This may be because the thin lining between the lung and ribcage, called the pleura, is infected and inflamed. This inflammation, called pleurisy, stops your lungs moving smoothly as you breathe.

    The symptoms of pneumonia are often very similar to those of other chest infections, such as bronchitis, COPD flare-ups or bronchiectasis flare-ups. To get a proper diagnosis youll need to visit your GP.

    If you feel unwell with these symptoms, see your GP or call 111. If you have chest pain, a rapid heartbeat, quick breathing, shivers or confusion, get urgent advice from your GP or call 999. Take extra care if youre over 65.

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    How Do You Get Pneumonia

    Have you ever been told to bundle up to avoid catching pneumonia? Or told a friend or family member not to walk outside with wet hair because he or she could get it? It might surprise you to find out that neither cold weather nor wet hair can cause you to catch pneumonia. In fact, pneumonia in itself isnt contagious, so you cant really catch it at all.

    If you are wondering how do you get pneumonia, or have any other questions about this condition, FastMed can help. We are open 365 days a year to provide treatment for non-life-threatening illness and injuries, as well as ready to answer all of your health related questions.

    What Are The Chances Of Dying From Pneumonia

    Yes, pneumonia can killbut its rare. We see so many more people that have pneumonia that survive, Dr. Bhowmick says.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , every year there are around 1 million Americans sent to the hospital with pneumonia, and about 50,000 die from the disease.

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    What Other Problems Can Pneumonia Cause

    Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as:

    • Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to .
    • Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs
    • Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity.
    • Respiratory failure

    What Can I Do To Feel Better If I Have Pneumonia

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    • Finish all medications and therapies prescribed by your doctor. Do not stop taking antibiotics when you start feeling better. Continue taking them until no pills remain. If you dont take all your antibiotics, your pneumonia may come back.
    • If over-the-counter medicines to reduce fever have been recommended , take as directed on the label. Never give aspirin to children.
    • Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen phlegm.
    • Quit smoking if you smoke. Dont be around others who smoke or vape. Surround yourself with as much clean, chemical-free air as possible.
    • Use a humidifier, take a steamy shower or bath to make it easier for you to breathe.
    • Get lots of rest. Dont rush your recovery. It can take weeks to get your full strength back.

    If at any time you start to feel worse, call your doctor right away.

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    Do You Have Pneumonia Symptoms

    Find a family medicine or primary care doctor near you.

    Another essential piece of the puzzle is determining if the infection may have been picked up from a hospital or other health-care facility like a nursing home. Pathogens that live in these places have a greater chance of being antibiotic resistant and require different treatment considerations.

    For most people, especially those without other serious medical conditions, a simple course of antibiotics along with rest and fluids will do, and theyll be back on their feet in no time.

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    What Are The Treatments For Pneumonia

    Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia, which germ is causing it, and how severe it is:

    • Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia.
    • In some cases, your provider may prescribe antiviral medicines for viral pneumonia
    • Antifungal medicines treat other types of fungal pneumonia

    You may need to be treated in a hospital if your symptoms are severe or if you are at risk for complications. While there, you may get additional treatments. For example, if your blood oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen therapy.

    It may take time to recover from pneumonia. Some people feel better within a week. For other people, it can take a month or more.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Pneumonia

    Quite often, people with pneumonia have previously had cold or flu symptoms for a few days or weeks that have got worse, not better.

    The most common symptoms of pneumonia are:

    • cough can be dry or may produce thick mucus
    • fever , sweating and shivering though in older people it can cause lower than normal body temperature
    • difficulty breathing, or rapid breathing or shortness of breath. In children, the ribs or the skin under the neck can suck in, or babies may bob their heads while breathing
    • feeling generally tired and unwell
    • loss of appetite

    How Is Pneumonia In Dogs Diagnosed

    Why Elderly People Should Receive Pneumococcal Vaccination

    A vet usually checks the medical history and conducts a physical exam to identify symptoms of pneumonia in dogs. The vet will try listening to your dogâs lungs through a stethoscope. This can help them identify sounds like wheezing in the lungs.

    The vet may check the body temperature of your dog and order blood tests to check for infection. They may also collect samples from your dogâs air passages for lab tests. More commonly, imaging tests like X-rays, MRI, or CT scans are done to check the lungs.

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    Are Vaccines Available To Prevent Pneumonia

    Yes, there are two types of vaccines specifically approved to prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria. Similar to a flu shot, these vaccines wont protect against all types of pneumonia, but if you do come down with pneumonia, its less likely to be as severe or potentially life-threatening especially for people who are at increased risk for pneumonia.

    • Bacterial pneumonia: Two pneumonia vaccines, Pneumovax23® and Prevnar13®, protect against the most common causes of bacterial pneumonia.
    • Pneumovax23® protects against 23 different types of pneumococcal bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children over 2 years of age who are at increased risk for pneumonia.
    • Prevnar13® protects against 13 types of pneumonia bacteria. It is recommended for all adults 65 years of age and older and children under 2 years of age. Ask your healthcare provider about these vaccines.
  • Viral pneumonia: Get a flu vaccine once every year. Flu vaccines are prepared to protect against that years virus strain. Having the flu can make it easier to get bacterial pneumonia.
  • If you have children, ask their doctor about other vaccines they should get. Several childhood vaccines help prevent infections caused by the bacteria and viruses that can lead to pneumonia.

    When Can I Return To Work School And Regular Activities If I Have Pneumonia

    You typically can resume your normal activities if your symptoms are gone, mild or improving and you do not have new or worsening:

    • Shortness of breath or tiredness
    • Chest pain
    • Mucus, fever or cough

    If you are generally healthy, most people feel well enough to return to previous activities in about a week. However, it may take about a month to feel totally back to normal.

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    Things You Should Know About Pneumonia

    Pneumonia is an infection that causes the air sacs in the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus, which makes it harder to breathe. The most common symptoms are cough that may be dry or produce phlegm, fever, chills and fatigue. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and pain in the chest. and shortness of breath. Signs that indicate a more severe infection are shortness of breath, confusion, decreased urination and lightheadedness. In the U.S., pneumonia accounts for 1.3 visits to the Emergency Department, and 50,000 deaths annually.

    With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing to affect people around the world, pneumonia has become an even larger health concern. Some people infected with the COVID-19 have no symptoms, while others may experience fever, body ache, dry cough, fatigue, chills, headache, sore throat, loss of appetite, and loss of smell.

    The more severe symptoms of COV-19, such as high fever, severe cough, and shortness of breath, usually mean significant lung involvement. The lungs can be damaged by overwhelming COVID-19 viral infection, severe inflammation, and/or a secondary bacterial pneumonia. COVID-19 can lead to long lasting lung damage.

    Here are other important facts you should know about pneumonia:,

    What Is Fungal Pneumonia

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    Three types of fungi living in soil are known causes of pneumonia:

    • Coccidioides immitis and Coccidiodes posadasii are two related fungi common to the American Southwest. Both can cause coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or valley fever.
    • Histoplasma capsulatum is found in the central and eastern United States, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys, and causes a disease called histoplasmosis.
    • Cryptococcus is a fungi found in soil and bird droppings all across the country.

    Most people who inhale these fungi don’t get sick, but if your immune system is weak, you may develop pneumonia.

    Another fungus, Pneumocystis jirovecii, can generate an infection in premature, malnourished infants, and in people with a weakened immune system, such as those who have HIV or AIDS.

    The symptoms of pneumonia that are caused by fungi are often similar to those of other forms of pneumonia, including a fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

    But because this type of pneumonia usually affects people with weakened immune systems, symptoms tend to develop faster, and people often experience a high fever.

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    Key Points About Pneumonia

    • Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

    • There are more than 30 different causes of pneumonia, and theyre grouped by the cause. The main types of pneumonia are bacterial, viral, and mycoplasma pneumonia.

    • A cough that produces green, yellow, or bloody mucus is the most common symptom of pneumonia. Other symptoms include fever, shaking chills, shortness of breath, low energy, and extreme tiredness.

    • Pneumonia can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical exam. Tests used to look at the lungs, blood tests, and tests done on the sputum you cough up may also be used.

    • Treatment depends on the type of pneumonia you have. Antibiotics are used for bacterial pneumonia. It may also speed recovery from mycoplasma pneumonia and some special cases. Most viral pneumonias dont have a specific treatment and just get better on their own. Other treatment may include a healthy diet, more fluids, rest, oxygen therapy, and medicine for pain, cough, and fever control.

    • Most people with pneumonia respond well to treatment, but pneumonia can cause serious lung and infection problems. It can even be deadly.

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